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Erik Erikson: Stages of Development
Transcript of Erik Erikson: Stages of Development
Erikson is most well known for his theory of the psychosocial development. This theory describes the impact of ones' experiences on the rest of their life. One of the main elements is the development of the
. He believed that the personality develops in a predetermined order, called the epigenic principal.
In Erikson's theory of psychosocial stages, there are eight stages that he believes that everyone goes through:
1. Trust vs Mistrust
2. Autonomy vs Shame
3. Initiative vs Guilt
4. Industry vs Inferiority
5. Ego Identity vs Role Confusion
6. Intimacy vs Isolation
7. Generativity vs Stagnation
8. Ego Integrity vs Despair
The successful completion of each of these stages results in a healthy personality and acquiring new virtues.
Failure to complete any of these stages results in a reduced capacity to complete the other stages, which in turn results in an unhealthy personality and sense of self.
Stage 1: Trust vs Mistrust (0-1.5 years old)
A child establishes a sense of trust when their guardian provides for them. And they develop a mistrust when this is not provided.
Stage 2: Autonomy vs Shame (2-3 years old)
Children develop a sense of autonomy when they succeed in establishing a sense of personal control over their physical abilities and independence. The failure to do so results in children feeling shame and doubt.
Stage 3: Initiative vs Guilt (3-5 years old)
Children need to begin to assert control and power over their environment. Doing this healthily results in a sense of purpose, but doing this unhealthily when the child attempts to exert too much control get reprimanded and thus feel guilty.
Stage 4: Industry vs Inferiority (6-11 years old)
New social and academic demands are placed on children, and their degree of success in dealing with these new demands dictates whether they feel competent or inferior.
Stage 5: Ego Identity vs Role Confusion (12-18 years old)
In this stage teens develop an identity and a sense of self, and their success in this area leads to the ability to stay true to them selves. Failure in this area leads to self confusion.
Stage 6: Intimacy vs Isolation (19-40 years old)
Young adults are forming intimate relationships with other people and their success or failure with either lead to strong relationships or loneliness and isolation.
Stage 7: Generativity vs Stagnation (41-65 years old)
This is the stage where people work for the good of the next generation, whether by raising children or creating positive change. They feel accomplished if they succeed, but if not, then it leads to shallow involvement in the world.
Stage 8: Ego Integrity vs Despair (66-Death)
This is where older adults look back in life to seek a sense of accomplishment or fulfillment. Success in this results in wisdom, and failure in this results in regret, bitterness and despair.