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8D-Astronomy Project-Ji Soo Kim
Transcript of 8D-Astronomy Project-Ji Soo Kim
Object that is so massive that light can't escape its gravity Large groups of stars, dust, gas What Types of Galaxies are there? Spiral Galaxies Elliptical Galaxies Irregular Galaxies Bulge at the center and spiral arms (made of gas, dust, new stars) Massive blobs of stars looking like spheres or stretched out spheres
Bright centers with little dust and gas (contain old stars) Galaxies that don't fit into any other class (shape is irregular) What are Inside Galaxies? Gas Clouds Star Clusters Quasars Nebulas: large clouds of gas and dust (usually found in spiral galaxies, not in elliptical galaxies) that absorb light or reflect starlight Globular cluster: group of stars that look like a ball (in spherical halo that surrounds spiral galaxies) Starlike sources of light that are extremely far away
Most powerful energy sources in the universe (might be caused by black holes) Everything Is Not What it Seems! The Earth What are the Layers of Earth? How did the Earth Form? 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% argon Did the Earth's Atmosphere Change? Steamy mixture of carbon dioxide and water vapor (mixture of gases that were released as the Earth cooled)
How did Oceans Form? Millions of years of rainfall (Earth was cool enough for rain to fall and remain on surface) How did Life Form? Without ozone layer,UV radiation produced conditions necessary for life
Chemicals combined to form simple life-forms
After photosynthetic creatures produced oxygen, life form could move onto land
The Sun The True Answer! Burning isn't long enough to keep the sun shining
Gravity causing the sun to slowly shrink is still not enough to power the sun How can the Sun stay hot and bright for so long? How did the Sun Form? Sunspots vs. Solar Flares What are the Sun's layers? Hall of Fame Ptolemy (140 CE) Earth was at the center of the universe and other planets and sun revolved around it Copernicus (1543) Sun is at the center of the universe and all of the planets orbit the sun Tycho Brahe (1500s) Sun and moon revolved theEarth and other planets revolved the sun (incorrect)
Recorded precise observations using large tools Johannes Kepler (1609) All planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits
Three laws of planetary motion Galileo (1609) First people to use a telescope and observe objects in space Isaac Newton (1687) All objects in the universe attract each other through gravitational force
Gravitation force depends on mass of objects and distance (Newton's law of gravity) Edwin Hubble (1924) Other galaxies existed beyond the edge of Milky Way Telescopes Instrument that gathers electromagnetic radiation from objects in space and concentrates it for better observation Optical Telescopes The most common type of telescope Refracting vs. Reflecting Uses lenses
1.) Images can't be perfectly focused
2.) Size of telescope is limited by size of objective lens Uses mirrors
1.) Mirrors can be very large
2.) Flaws in mirror don't affect the light
3.) All colors of light from an object focus at the same time Electromagnetic Spectrum Non-optical Telescopes Used to study invisible radiation Radio Telescopes Detect radio waves What Happens of Radio Telescopes are Linked? Astronomers can get a more detailed image of the universe (work as a single giant telescope) Why do we put Telescopes in Space? To avoid interferece from the Earth's atmosphere How Bright Is That Star? Apparent magnitude: the brightness of a light or star
Abosolute magnituge: actual brightness of a star
Distance of a star makes a difference on how bright it looks Do Stars Move? Apparent motion: Sun and stars in our sky seem to move across due to Earth's rotation
Actual motion: Each star is moving in space (too far away to see) Rotation: spinning of a body on its axis
Orbit: path that a body follows around another body
Revolution: one complete trip along an orbit The Big Bang Theory How Did Our Universe Begin? Pluto What is Pluto? What makes a Planet a Planet?
3.) larger than anything that crosses its orbit
Why isn't Pluto a Planet? 1.) Its orbit is tilted compared to other planets, taking it above or below the plane of the other planets’ orbits
2.) It is significantly smaller than the other planets
3.) Discovered the Kuiper Belt that contained thousands of small bodies. Pluto orbits in the Kuiper Belt, along with objects that rival it in size. What Finally made Pluto not a Planet? At the 2006 conference of the IAU, astronomers voted to define a planet with the 3 requirements
Pluto meets the first 2 requirements, but not the third.
Other planets are by far the largest objects in their orbits, but Pluto isn't
Pluto orbits in the same region as several objects (not cleared the neighborhood around its orbit)
What is Pluto Now?
A dwarf planet, along with two other solar system objects: Eris and Ceres (very dense region) (gas circulation) (center where energy is produced) (visible part) (thin region) (outer atmosphere) Sunspots: cooler, dark spots of the sun's photosphere (magnetic fields slow down convective zone's activity) that can affect Earth's climate
Solar Flares: Regions of extremely high temperature and brightness that develop on the sun's surface Inertia & Gravity keep the planets in orbit
Closer the planet is to the sun, the faster it orbits Nuclear Fusion
Elements can be detected through the absorption spectrum pattern How Do We Study Stars? H-R Diagram: relationship between a star's surface emperature and its absolute magnitude Blue=Hottest Stars Red=Coolest Stars Less dense material to denser material Volcanoes, comets, etc. caused the atmosphere to change Made up of all of the wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation 1.) orbit the sun 2.) enough mass so that gravity pulls it to a spherical shape 4.) cleared the neighborhood around its orbit Quick Review! Bibliography http://docs.google.com/Doc?docid=0AQKLzSrVVk9fZGd0OGNxejNfNWtkNzVtcmho&hl=en AS As As Earth gained more mass and gravity increased, the layers of Earth formed