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HIV

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Courtney Segura

on 15 July 2015

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Transcript of HIV

HIV

What is HIV?
Symptoms stages
Acute Infection
Testing
CDC recommends that health care providers test everyone between the ages of 13 and 64 at least once as part of routine health care.
A patient has the right to deny the test.
One in seven people in the United States who have HIV do not know they are infected.
Prevention
There are a number of ways to prevent and reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Prevention methods must start with addressing the three main routes of transmission.
Transmission
HIV can only be transmitted from an infected person to another through direct contact of bodily fluids such as:
Blood (including menstrual blood)
Semen /Pre-seminal fluids.
Vaginal/ Rectal secretions.
Breast milk.
Sharing Needles
Occupational Exposure
Cannot contract HIV
Sweat
Tears
Insects
Air
Water
Toilet Seat
Tiffany Robles
Anatomy
Pathophysiology
HIV penetrates the
body through blood
and body fluids.
Depends on individual
Clinical Latency/Asymptomatic Disease
HIV-infected patients may or may not have signs and symptoms of HIV infection.
Active and reproduces at low levels
In HIV-infected adults, this phase may last 8–10 years.
AIDS
Immune system is badly damaged
Vulnerable to infections and infection-related cancers called opportunistic infections.
CD4 cells falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood (200 cells/mm3),
Fast Facts
antibody screening test (immunoassay)- most common
The rapid test
Follow-up diagnostic testing
Home Access HIV-1 Test System
OraQuick In-Home HIV Test
RNA tests
The immune system usually takes 3 to 8 weeks to make antibodies against HIV, but tests differ in how early they are able to detect antibodies.
Where can you get tested?
Ask your health care provider for an HIV test. Many medical clinics, substance abuse programs, community health centers, and hospitals offer them, too.
HIV awareness education
Practice safe sex
Screening blood products
Reducing needle sharing
Seek treatment while pregnant to decrease babys chances of testing positive.
Antiretroviral treatment
Pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, can lower the risk of getting HIV by taking a pill every day. It is for people who do not have HIV but who are at substantial risk of getting it.
Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is medicine that can prevent HIV after a possible exposure if started within 3 days.
More than 1.2 million in the U.S are living with HIV and 1 in 7 are unaware of their infection
Out of the 12% of African Americans in the U.S. 44% are accounted for new HIV infection in 2010.
35 million people worldwide are living with HIV/AIDS
3.2 million children are infected with HIV.
An HIV kit can be purchased at you nearest drug store.
If you don't have insurance, there are numerous programs that can help you get the care you need to treat your HIV/AIDS.
Pathophysiology
Medication
Activation of cell by transcription factors induces transcription of proviral DNA
DNA is transcribed into RNA in nucleus
RNA product migrates to cytoplasm
RNA and ribosomes pair to create proteins needed
Some of the created proteins need to be processed by protease
Protease takes longer proteins and cleaves them into smaller, core proteins

HIV Pathophysiology: Transcription & Translation

T-cell

HIV cell

GP-41

GP-120

Virus attaches to CD4 receptor on T-cell
GP-120 binds to CD4 receptor
GP-120 binding allows GP-41 to unfold and insert hydrophobic “prongs” into cell
These prongs pull the HIV cell and T-cell together, allowing fusion of the membrane
When membranes are fused, HIV capsule breaks open dumping the contents of HIV cell
Two strands of HIV RNA
Integrase
Reverse Transcriptase
Protease

HIV Pathophysiology: Attachment
HIV Pathophysiology: Exocytosis

After proteins and viral RNA material is created, two strands of RNA along with protease, integrase and reverse transcriptase into a capsule of core proteins
These will start to be exocytosed
When exocytosed, it obtains a lipid bilayer from part of host cell
New HIV cell is released from host cell and is sent to repeat the process with another T-cell
Replication happens numerous times within an infected host cell
Host T-cell is lysed each time it produces new viral cell


Now with the viral DNA, integrase goes into action
The integrase cleaves the 3’ end of the DNA to create “sticky ends”
Then transfers DNA into T-cell nucleus
Also facilitates new viral DNA into host cell genome
Now the viral DNA is linked in with the host cell DNA


HIV Pathophysiology: Integration

Reverse transcription begins in cytoplasm
Reverse Transcriptase starts affecting the viral RNA
Polymerase active site creates an RNA-DNA genomic strand
That strand passes through Ribonuclease active site and breaks the strand into RNA and DNA single strands
The single stranded DNA goes back through Polymerase active site to create the double stranded DNA
RNA strand is broken down

HIV Pathophysiology: Reverse Transcription

Atripla
Single tablet 3-in-1
600 mg of efavirenz(EFV)
200 mg of emtricitabine(FTC)
300 mg of tenofovir (TDF)
FTC/TDF
Nucleoside
EFV
Non-Nucleoside
Side Effects:
Dizziness
Headaches
Fatigue
Psychiatric problems
Diarrhea
Rash
May interact with:
antifungals medications
antihistamines
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory
2-4 weeks after HIV infection
Flu-like symptoms
Acute retroviral syndrom (ARS)
Viral set point
High risk of transmitting HIV to your partner
If you have a positive you are required to take another one to confirm the results.
What is hiv
chimpanzee. West Africa
Incurable
For Life
Progresses
turn into aids
hiv stands for
h-human
i-immunodeficiency
v-virus
Full transcript