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The oral Approach

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Anthony Rodríguez

on 12 April 2013

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Transcript of The oral Approach

Background THE ORAL APPROACH Anthony Rodríguez Silva The origin of this approach began with the work of British applied linguistics in the 1920's and 1930's Harold Palmer A. S. Hornby They attempted to develop a more specific foundation for an oral approach than was evidenced in the direct method. way to teach Vocabulary as one of the most important aspects of foreign language learning. The increased emphasis on reading skills as the goal of foreign language learning. The impetus for this research came form two quarters. Palmer, West & other specialists produced a guide to the English vocabulary needed for teaching EFL which became a standard reference in developing teaching materials. Impact Development of
principles of
vocabulary control A knowledge of
these words
would greatly assist
in reading a foreign language Vocabulary Control Grammar Control Emphasized on the problems of grammar for the foreign learner, was directed toward developing classroom procedures suited to teaching basic grammatical patters through an oral approach. & Palmer Hornby structures into patters 1920’s is developed a methodology that involved: the procedures in which lexical & grammatical content was chosen. principles by which organization and sequencing content were determined Techniques for practice items in a course . Selection: Gradation: Presentation: CHARACTERISTICS OF THE APPROACH: 1.Language teaching begins with the spoken language. Material is taught orally before it is presented in Witten form.

2.The target language is the language of the classroom.

3.Items of grammar are graded following the principle that simple forms should be taught before complex ones.

4.Reading and writing are introduced once a sufficient lexical and grammatical basis is established.

Theory of language Speech was regarded as the basis of language, and structure was viewed as being at the heart of speaking ability. “Our principal classroom activity in the teaching of English structure will be the oral practice of structures” (Pittman, 1963) Language was viewed as purposeful
activity related to goals and situations
in the real world. Theory of learning Situational teaching is a type of behaviorist habit-learning theory. The learner is expected to deduce the meaning. The meaning of words or structures is not to be given through explanation in either the native or the target language but is to be induced from the way the form is used in a situation.
“if we give the meaning of a new word, either by translation or by an equivalent, as soon as we introduce it, we weaken the impression of the word” (Billows, 1961)
By Situational language
Pittman means the use on concrete objects, pictures and realia, which together with actions and gestures can be used or demonstrate the meaning of a new language items

Materials role
Situational LT is dependent on both a textbook and visual aids,
Textbook provides theory and visual aids consist of wall charts, flashcards, pictures and so on.
Types of learning and teaching activities Learner roles:
The learner is required simply to listen and repeat what the teacher says and to respond to questions and commands, later. More active participation is encouraged.
Teacher roles:
Serves as a model, like a conductor of an orchestra, is required to be a skillful manipulator, is ever on on the lookout for grammatical and structural errors.
According to Pittman, the
teacher’s responsibilities as dealing with:
2.Oral practice, to support the textbook structures
4.Adjustment of needs
6.developing language activities
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