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The Americas and Oceania WHAP
Transcript of The Americas and Oceania WHAP
Columbus "discovered" the Americas in 1492. Started the rush of European nations to pursue colonies there.
Motives for Exploration:
Italian city-state monopoly on Asian trade through Ottomans.
Renaissance: Humanism focused on individual achievement. Started by excess wealth in Italy.
Inventions: Caravel ships, astrolabe, and the magnetic compass was in large use.
Christianity: Catholic Church wanted to send missionaries, later Protestants seeking refuge.
Riches: come on, fame and fortune are hard to resist. Just ask any of the Kardashians.
Columbus and Motives
The Incas were also expansionist, controlling 2000 miles of coastline.
They had a bureaucracy, unified language, and complex system of roads and tunnels.
Only llamas, so used humans for labor.
Mita system: mandatory labor before 18 on public works (like that wicked sweet Machu Picchu)
Women had some rights- could pass land down to daughters.
Rel: Polytheistic, but sun god was bae (Inti= sun god, Inca= people of the sun). Emphasized moral behavior, and mummified their dead (form of ancestor veneration). Minimal human sacrifice.
Achievements: Quipu: no writing, but set of knotted strings for record keeping. Waru waru: terrace farming storing rain water.
Fall: civil war, Europe.
Pre-Columbian South America: The Incas
Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica: AZTECS
300 BCE- 800 CE dominated southern Mexico and C. America.
, but all led by one king.
Wrote in hieroglyphics (sound familiar?)
500-850 CE: complex calendar system, architecture, and city planning.
: heavens, humans, underworld. Believed made world out of maize and water, and maintained ag in return for sacrifices and bloodletting rituals.
: number system based on 0, ziggurats.
war for slaves, not land.
: Majority peasants or slaves, with kings, priests, and hereditary nobility on the top with merchants.
Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica: MAYANS
The Americas and Oceania
Harty AP World History
Claimed legacy of the earlier Toltecs, named Mexica (sound familiar) arrived in 1200 CE and built capital at Tenochtitlan (aka Mexico-City).
Tenochtitlan had population of 200,000 (one of largest in the world).
Expansionist policy and profesh army. Conquered neighbors, taking slaves (to use for sacrifice) and enforcing heavy taxes. --> 12 mill ppl in empire.
TRIBUTE SYSTEM: food, cloth, firewood, beads, jewelry.
Culture: Polytheistic w/ belief in human sacrifice.
Social: Hierarchy included nobility, scribes, healers, pochteca (luxury good merchants), peasants, soldiers, and slaves.
Fall: overexpansion, lack of wheeled animals/pack animals, Europe.
: Horses and sugarcane to Americas, potato and maize to Afro-Eurasia.
: migrated voluntary, but many Africans were forcibly taken to serve as slaves.
: Gold went to Spain, but silver most valued from Peru (use of mita against natives). Japan also brought into trade b/c of their silver mines. China and India on the receiving end of most of the silver. Now a global exchange.
: beginnings of the Atlantic Slave Trade.
: 50% lost in a century. Some areas as high as 90-95% of population
: early 1500s the Spanish created the
to gain access to gold/other resources. The landowners forced the indigenous people to work in the system.
: most valuable resource as China wanted it. Potosi in Peru was the most valuable silver mining center. Spanish used the mita system against the Inca to force the Incan to send men to work in the mines. Made the Spanish IMMENSELY wealthy, created Galleon ships (heavily armed).
Mercantilism: power based on wealth. Gained wealth through favorable balance of trade (export > import). Use colonies (in the family) to gain cheap raw resources and as a marketplace.
: Portuguese focused on sugar plantations in Brazil using African slaves. Horrific working conditions- had to constantly bring over more slaves as 10% of African slaves died each year in the plantations.
Dutch explore Australia in the 17th cent, but not until English Captain Hook, is there a colony.
Penal Colony at first. By 1830s, more free people than criminals (murderers and thieves)
Polynesia continues to have trade relationship w/ Europe after Magellan opened trade routes (especially Philippines and Guam)
Fall of the Aztec
: Hernan Cortes (conquistador) marched on Tenochtitlan, and were given gold to go away, but conquered them mostly through disease (smallpox). Creates colony of New Spain.
Fall of the Inca
: 1532 Francisco Pizarro (conquistador) captured their ruler, Atahualpa. Forced to pay ransom, but killed Atahualpa anyway. Disease, once again, played a larger role than military in the demise of the Inca.
Treaty of Tordesillas
: 1494 Spain and Portugal argued over colonial dibs, and had the Pope handle the issue, to which the Line of Demarcation was created in the Atlantic Ocean (partially through Brazil).
Viceroys acted as administrators and representatives of Spanish crown. Created audencias, or royal courts, to appeal viceroy decisions. Distance made direct rule VERY difficult. By 1750, those of Spanish descent born in America, aka creoles, wanted independence.
Cultural and Social Changes
Most Aztec books destroyed by the Spanish, few left behind- we rely on 1545 account by a Spanish Priest in the Florentine Codex for info on the Aztec.
: Several Catholic religious orders went to Latin America. Syncretic versions of Roman Catholicism seen with catholic saints and indigenous gods. In Haiti- Vodun (voodoo) blended Catholicism with African animist traditions.
: first social hierarchy based on race.
Colonies in North America
French: Canada fur colonies.
England: American agricultural colonies.
Dutch: New Amsterdam (NYC), but England took it in 1664.
African Civilizations Before and After Colonial Era
Songhay Empire: Niger River Valley, took over Mali Empire in 1464 by Sunni Ali. Songhay was tolerant of other faiths (gov't was Muslim). Taken over by the Moroccans to the NW.
Portuguese arrived thanks to Prince Henry the Navigator, explorers found route around Africa, thus set up military outposts.
Atlantic Slave Trade: Europeans accessed existing slave trade in Africa (Arab merchants participated in slave trade from to 600s). Middle Passage over to the American colonies killed 20%, the Africans who survived were sold into plantations (sugar, tobacco).
Effect on Americas: music (jazz), food (okra, gumbo), and religion (syncretic vodun, santeria).
Effect on Africa: led to rise of matriarchal power, stunted political growth, but overall population growth from improved diet (columbian exchange).