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Artistic Talent

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Mary Spencer

on 9 March 2014

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Transcript of Artistic Talent

Artistic Talent
Job Description
I, Mary Spencer, teach art at an elementary school and I have chosen a first grade class to test and to use for this study. There are no responsibilities involving advanced or gifted learners in any of the art classes that I teach.
Description of Assessment
I choose Clark’s Drawing Abilities Test (CDAT) (Clark, 1989) because it can be used as a screening device for identifying elementary through high school gifted students who are talented in the visual arts. The test also correlates with the Torrance Tests of Creativity and state achievement tests. The CDAT is an instrument that has been used with many elementary schools, middle schools, universities, and high ability students both in the United States and other countries. The CDAT appears to be highly effective both as a screening and as an identification instrument for high ability students in the visual arts.
Quality of Assessment - Key 1
Presentation of Data and Findings
In my research for visual art rubrics, I could see that the rubrics were founded upon criteria that would be highly subjective to the decisions made by the people judging the art work. Therefore I created a rubric using Clark’s Drawing Abilities Test Scoring Criteria and Values. I found the CDAT to have a more objective criteria and scoring system for judging observable characteristics of children’s drawings.
By: Mary Spencer
Reflections Regarding the Assessment Tool
It is noticeable how my students are taking more pride and interest in their creative abilities after having given them encouragement and constructive feedback on their art work. Improvement can already be seen in how the students are adding more details and giving deeper thought about what they want to put down on their drawing paper. It’s important that we’re able to identify gifted and talented students. Teachers can help students to identify their creative abilities and to address and pull out that hidden talent that would otherwise go unnoticed by the child. What if the teacher had not been able to see what the child was able to do in art class? If a child’s abilities are not pointed out to him or her, the student may never know the complete value of the work he/she has produced?

“Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited to all we now know and understand, while imagination embraces the entire world, and all there ever will be to know and understand.” Albert Einstein

I really like the position that our reading book takes, “How do you catch a cloud and pin it down?” This line from the lyrics of Rogers and Hammerstein’s song “Maria,” from the musical The Sound of Music, expresses the way many people feel about the measurement of creativity. How is it possible to measure something as ineffable as creativity?” (VanTassel-Baska, 2008). I do not feel that we can really assess creativity. We can only measure some of the thinking skills that were used, or some personal traits that correlate with the art products that were produced from that kind of thinking. You can only give feedback, encouragement, and value the creativity of the art work. If teachers don’t motivate their bright students, encourage their perseverance, energy, or opportunity to bring their intellectual potential to fruition then children will not develop their creative potential.

Implications of the Assessment for Advanced Learners
Gilbert A. Clark said, “I often am asked to specify a CDAT score that would separate high ability students from other students; that is not possible because performance on the test will vary significantly from school to school or from situation to situation. I recommend that a pre-selected percentage of high scoring subjects, appropriate to the needs of a local program, be used; a relatively large percentage of high scorers would be chosen for a screening procedure and a smaller percentage would be chosen in an identification procedure. The CDAT is not intended and should not be used in ways that may result in labeling or classifying students except on a very short-term basis. It is clear that scores on the CDAT are very amenable to change through instruction because students can be taught skills and techniques that change their test performance significantly” (Clark, 1992). “Different kinds of creativity measures, such as divergent thinking tests and creativity inventories, generally are predictive of creative activities, interests, and accomplishments later in life” (Cline, Richards, & Needham, 1963; Torrance, 2002). This perspective gives a very broad definition of gifted and talented children. Our most precious resource is our children and we have an obligation to do everything we can to educate them to the furthest extent possible. The most inspirational thing we can see is to watch those young minds and brains learn, watch them grow, and watch them conquer. When our gifted young people meet their extraordinary potentials, our families, communities, states, nations, and even our world becomes a better place.


Description of Assessment Continued
The purpose of the testing was to identify gifted students who are talented in the visual arts and to help give support where needed for developing all students’ creativity. It was a formative test for gathering information only. Susan M. Brookhart said, “We can assess creativity – and, in the process, help students become more creative” (Assessing Creativity, 2013). I used this information to help me identify and encourage the art abilities of my students. I have been more aware and able to spot many chances for fostering my students’ creativity by deliberately noticing and naming opportunities when they occurred, giving feedback on the creative process and also, by teaching students that creativity is a valued quality.
The CDAT test is based on four drawing tasks. These are (1) Draw an interesting house as if you were looking at it from across the street, (2) Draw a person who is running very fast, (3) Draw a picture of you and your friends playing in a school yard, and (4) Make a fantasy drawing from your imagination. These tasks call for a demonstration of very different abilities and skills. Gilbert A. Clark explains them, “Drawing a house requires skills such as depicting perspective, textures, differential and meaningful shapes and sizes, and recognizable details. Drawing a person running requires portrayal of a human figure in action as well as body proportions and recognizable details. Drawing a group of persons on a playground requires portraying and composing receding space and groupings of figures in that space. The fantasy drawing task allows subjects to use their imaginations to portray what ever they wish, including things they know and draw well. In addition to instructions for the subject of each drawing task, instructions to ‘use a #2 pencil, make the best drawing you can, and use no more than 15 minutes to complete the drawing’ also are included for each drawing” (Clark, 1993).
Description of Assessment Continued
Clark’s Drawing Abilities Test Scoring Criteria and Values

1. SENSORY PROPERTIES: Line, Shape, Texture, & Value 1-5*
2. FORMAL PROPERTIES: Rhythm, Balance, Unity, & Composition 1-5*
3. EXPRESSIVE PROPERTIES: Mood & Originality 1-5*
4. TECHNICAL PROPERTIES: Technique & Correctness of solution 1-5*
5. TITLE (Item 4) Appropriateness 1-5*

*5 on each item is used to give credit only for “unique, innovative, unusual” responses

Each of the properties were graded on a 1-5 scale for each drawing.


Description of Assessment Continued
Appendices
Brookhart, Susan M. Assessing Creativity. February 2013, Vol. 70, Number 5. Creativity Now! pp. 28-34.

Clark, G. (1987). Chronology: Inquiry about children’s drawing abilities and testing of art abilities. In G. Clark, E. Zimmerman, & M. Zurmuehlen (Eds.), Understanding art testings: Past influences, Norman C. Meier’s contributions, present concerns, and future possibilities (pp. 110-117). Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

Clark, G. (1989). Screening and identifying students talented in the visual arts: Clark’s drawing abilities test. Gifted Child Quarterly, 33, 98-105.

Clark, G. (1992). Using history to design a new drawing abilities test. In P. Amburgy, D. Soucy, M. Stankiewicz, B. Wilson, & M. Wilson (Eds.), The history of art education: Proceedings from the second Penn State conference. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association, pp. 78.

Clark, G. (1993). Judging Children’s Drawings as Measures of Art Abilities: Studies in Art Education, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 72-81.

Cline, Richards, & Needham. (1963);Torrance. (2002). Alternative Assessments with Gifted and Talented Students, pp. 204.

VanTassel-Baska, Joyce. (2008). Alternative Assessments with Gifted and Talented Students, pp. 203.

Key 1 – The quality of the CDAT test for visual arts has been well researched and used by teachers in many classrooms. It has been used successfully to help teachers identify various ability levels among their students. With these identifications, teachers can modify their instruction and help students meet their own needs. After a year of instruction with an art teacher, the results of all students will show on successive administrations of the CDAT.
All lessons taught are tied to the core standards and can easily be understood by the students. The core standards are: 1010-01: Objectives: 1010-0101; Standard: 1010-02: Objectives: 1010-0201; Standard: 1010-03: Objectives: 1010-0301; 1010-0302; Standard: 1010-04: Objectives: 1010-0401; 1010-0402; 1010-0403. The concept in each lesson is taught in a step by step manner and progressively increases with depth of understanding and application. They reflect a bigger plan across grade levels, and are tied to the previous and next learning, with a continuous-progress curriculum in place.
Quality of Assessment - Key 2
Quality of Assessment - Key 3
The test should be used to reveal each student’s need for instruction and to help improve students’ abilities to be expressive and value art experiences. Gilbert A. Clark said, “Numerous scoring systems have been used to evaluate children’s drawings, but most were founded upon highly subjective decisions by judges” (Clark, 1987).
Description of Assessment - Key 4
Clark also said, “In my test development work, I attempted to create objective criteria and a scoring system for judging observable characteristics of children’s drawings derived and adapted from a system used to describe, analyze, and evaluate adult art” (Clark, 1987).
Description of Assessment - Key 5
By providing a quality learning environment for my students, I find that they will self-assess their own drawings naturally on an on-going basis during class. I give them encouragement and constructive feedback. It is so exciting to see how their art work has improved.
Rubric for Scoring Visual Art
A. SENSORY PROPERTIES
Line: thick, thin, straight, curved, long, short, ragged, wiry, curly, etc. Are the lines used to form an intelligible form?
__ 1-Art is typical of children who are younger in age.
__ 2-Art work is typical of children of the same age.
__ 3-Art is above average when compared with kids of the same age.
__ 4-Art is advanced when compared with children of the same age.
__ *5 on each item is used to give credit only for “unique, innovative, unusual” responses.

Shape: The outline, edge or external appearance of a flat object.
__ 1-Art is typical of children who are younger in age.
__ 2-Art work is typical of children of the same age.
__ 3-Art is above average when compared with kids of the same age.
__ 4-Art is advanced when compared with children of the same age.
__ *5 on each item is used to give credit only for “unique, innovative, unusual” responses.

Texture: The way an object feels when it is touched (tactile texture) or the way an object looks like it feels (visual texture).
__ 1-Art is typical of children who are younger in age.
__ 2-Art work is typical of children of the same age.
__ 3-Art is above average when compared with kids of the same age.
__ 4-Art is advanced when compared with children of the same age.
__ *5 on each item is used to give credit only for “unique, innovative, unusual” responses.

Value: The lightness or darkness of a color also, varying the pressure of a pencil.
__ 1-Art is typical of children who are younger in age.
__ 2-Art work is typical of children of the same age.
__ 3-Art is above average when compared with kids of the same age.
__ 4-Art is advanced when compared with children of the same age.
__ *5 on each item is used to give credit only for “unique, innovative, unusual” responses.

Rubric for Scoring Visual Art
B. FORMAL PROPERTIES
Rhythm: Your eye does not go to one place and stay there. There may be one focal point, but it is softened with other elements around it.
__ 1-Art is typical of children who are younger in age.
__ 2-Art work is typical of children of the same age.
__ 3-Art is above average when compared with kids of the same age.
__ 4-Art is advanced when compared with children of the same age.
__ *5 on each item is used to give credit only for “unique, innovative, unusual” responses.

Balance: In a composition, the parts are arranged to have the appearance of equal importance.
__ 1-Art is typical of children who are younger in age.
__ 2-Art work is typical of children of the same age.
__ 3-Art is above average when compared with kids of the same age.
__ 4-Art is advanced when compared with children of the same age.
__ *5 on each item is used to give credit only for “unique, innovative, unusual” responses.

Unity: The qualities of having all the parts look as if they belong together.
__ 1-Art is typical of children who are younger in age.
__ 2-Art work is typical of children of the same age.
__ 3-Art is above average when compared with kids of the same age.
__ 4-Art is advanced when compared with children of the same age.
__ *5 on each item is used to give credit only for “unique, innovative, unusual” responses.

Composition: The organization of shapes, lines, and colors on the flat two-dimensional picture plane.

__ 1-Art is typical of children who are younger in age.
__ 2-Art work is typical of children of the same age.
__ 3-Art is above average when compared with kids of the same age.
__ 4-Art is advanced when compared with children of the same age.
__ *5 on each item is used to give credit only for “unique, innovative, unusual” responses
Rubric for Scoring Visual Art
C. EXPRESSIVE PROPERTIES
Mood: To stimulate the viewer in a certain emotional way.
__ 1-Art is typical of children who are younger in age.
__ 2-Art work is typical of children of the same age.
__ 3-Art is above average when compared with kids of the same age.
__ 4-Art is advanced when compared with children of the same age.
__ *5 on each item is used to give credit only for “unique, innovative, unusual” responses.

Originality: Extensive evidence of imagination or personal interpretation, showing originality and inventiveness.
__ 1-Art is typical of children who are younger in age.
__ 2-Art work is typical of children of the same age.
__ 3-Art is above average when compared with kids of the same age.
__ 4-Art is advanced when compared with children of the same age.
__ *5 on each item is used to give credit only for “unique, innovative, unusual” responses.
Rubric for Scoring Visual Art
D. TECHNICAL PROPERTIS
Technique: #1-The individual characteristics of a medium #2-A special method of creating art work or applying a medium
__ 1-Art is typical of children who are younger in age.
__ 2-Art work is typical of children of the same age.
__ 3-Art is above average when compared with kids of the same age.
__ 4-Art is advanced when compared with children of the same age.
__ *5 on each item is used to give credit only for “unique, innovative, unusual” responses.

Correctness of solution: The way an art piece is put together.
__ 1-Art is typical of children who are younger in age.
__ 2-Art work is typical of children of the same age.
__ 3-Art is above average when compared with kids of the same age.
__ 4-Art is advanced when compared with children of the same age.
__ *5 on each item is used to give credit only for “unique, innovative, unusual” responses.
Rubric for Scoring Visual Art
E. TITLE (Item 4)
Appropriateness
__ 1-Art is typical of children who are younger in age.
__ 2-Art work is typical of children of the same age.
__ 3-Art is above average when compared with kids of the same age.
__ 4-Art is advanced when compared with children of the same age.
__ *5 on each item is used to give credit only for “unique, innovative, unusual” responses.
I chose two student samples from each of the four drawing tasks given. Task (1) Draw an interesting house as if you were looking at it from across the street. Edgar - 52/65=.8; Somaiya – 47/65=.72. Drawing a person running requires skills such as depicting perspective, textures, differential and meaningful shapes and sizes, and recognizable details. Task (2) Draw a person who is running very fast. Edgar – 51/65=.78; Kimberly – 44/65=.68. Drawing a person running requires portrayal of a human figure in action as well as body proportions and recognizable details. Task (3) Draw a picture of you and your friends playing in a school yard. Joselyne – 49/65=.75; Sosaia – 52/65=.8. Drawing a group of persons on a playground requires portraying and composing receding space and groupings of figures in that space. Task (4) Make a fantasy drawing from your imagination. Somaiya – 51/65=.78; Joselyne – 45/65=.69. The fantasy drawing task allows subjects to use their imaginations to portray what ever they wish, including things they know and draw well.
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