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Transcript of LEITER-R 4
LEITER - R: Overview
Normative Sample: 1,719 in 1993
Satisfactory content, construct, and criterion-related validity
Rating scales provide good psychosocial behavior information
Normative sample matches US population fairly well
Internal consistency reliabilities are acceptable
Useful for classifying children with cognitive delay (accuracy rate of 96%)
Materials are colorful and interesting for children
Athanasiou, M. (2000). Current nonverbal assessment instruments: A comparison of psychometric integrity and test fairness. Journal Of Psychoeducational Assessment, 18(3), 211-229. doi:10.1177/073428290001800302
Bradley-Johnson, S. (2001). Cognitive assessment for the youngest children: A critical review of tests. Journal Of Psychoeducational Assessment, 19(1), 19-44. doi:10.1177/073428290101900102
Farrell, M. M., & Phelps, L. (2000). A comparison of the Leiter-R and the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) with children classified as language impaired. Journal Of Psychoeducational Assessment, 18(3), 268-274.
Rhodes, R.L., Ochoa, S.H., & Ortiz, S.O., (2005). Assessing culturally and linguistically diverse students. New York, NY: Guilford Books
Sattler, J. (2008). Assessment of children: Cognitive applications (5th Ed.) San Diego, CA: Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher
First edition published in 1940
1) The need for early identification of cognitive delays
2) The need for the measurement of small, gradual improvements in cognitive ability
3) Pressing need for a valid scale of intellectual ability regardless of language or motor ability
4) Need for assessments that assist transitioning into the work place
25 - 40 minutes
2 - 21 years
Stoelting Co. Illinois
2 Batteries - 20 Subtests
Figure Ground (FG)
Form Completion (FC)
Paper Folding (PF)
Figure Rotation (FR)
Picture Context (PC)
Visualization and Reasoning
Design Analogies (DA)
Sequential Order (SO)
Repeated Patterns (RP)
Attention and Memory
Associated Pairs (AP)
Immediate Recognition (IC)
Forward Memory (FM)
Reverse Memory (RM)
Visual Coding (VC)
Spatial Memory (SM)
Attention Sustained (AS)
Attention Divided (AD)
Test Reliability: Internal reliability coefficients with the visualization and reasoning subtests ranging from .75 - .90 and within the attention and memory subtests from .67 - .85. Internal consistency ranges from .88 - .93
Test Validity: "shows consistence evidence of validity from content-analysis studies with extensive item analysis data, criterion-related studies with excellent results for the classification accuracy in identifying cognitive delay, and in various construct-related studies."
Intertest Correlation: .85 with WISC III and .85 with original LEITER - R
What is the LEITER - R?
Designed to be a fair and accurate measure of fluid intelligence without being significantly influenced by a child's educational, social, and family experience.
The standardization was carefully constructed to accurately represent the child's age, gender and socio-economic status.
Navajo children averaged 98.0 on the Leiter-R brief IQ, while WISC-III averaged 84.5. The test is very useful for non-verbal, non-English speaking and low SES students as well as students with Autism, ADHD and Traumatic Brain Injury.
The test is particularly useful for individuals who have little or no useful speech or who have limited motor coordination (Sattler, 2008).
Retest reliability is unclear, length of interval not provided
Normative sample based on 1993 census (inclusion criteria: no physical, emotional, or mental impairment, speak English as a first language, etc.)
Kit is heavy and bulky, easels are cumbersome
Only general instructions for pantomiming are given (variability could be a threat to standardization)
Ambiguous predictive validity
Not good for classifying giftedness, Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity, and learning disabilities
Nonverbal tasks offer limited measure of global intellectual level
Rhodes, Ochoa, and Ortiz (2005) “…nonverbal tests may well carry less language demands…and as such do represent, in general, better alternatives for English-language learners who might otherwise have significant difficulty with high language demands. But they are by no means the ‘answer’…because they continue to have many of the same problems that plague verbal tests (e.g. inadequate norm sample representation, cultural loading, narrow range of measured abilities).”
“…The Leiter-R provides adequate representation of only three broad abilities: Gf (fluid Intelligence), Gv (Visual processing), and Glr (Long-term Retrieval). It underrepresents Gs (Processing Speed), and other broad abilities, such as Ga (Auditory Processing), Gsm (Short-term Memory), and Gc (Crystalized Intelligence), are not represented within the Leiter-R battery. In summary, there is no commercially available instruments that measure the full range of human cognitive abilities in a nonverbal manner.”
Conceptual Measurement & Methodological Issues
in Cognitive Assessment of
Culturally & Linguistically Diverse Individuals