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AP Environmental Science: Pollution

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Tessa Rogers

on 1 May 2013

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Transcript of AP Environmental Science: Pollution

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Chapter 8: Pollution Toxicity
Health Air
Pollution Climate
Change Water
Pollution Solid
Waste Hazardous
Waste Noise
Pollution Overview of Pollution About 25%-30% of the exam will be on pollution
All the words in are key terms. So pay attention to them so you can study these words later! bold Topics for today:
Air Pollution
Climate Change
Water Pollution
Solid Waste
Hazardous Waste
Noise Pollution http://www.course-notes.org/Environmental_Science For a more in depth look here's another great source! A toxin is any substance that does damage to living organisms when inhaled, ingested, or absorbed.
While the toxicity of a toxin is the degree to which it is biologically harmed.

Almost any substance can be harmful if present in large enough quantities! Dose-response analysis
Dose-response curve
Threshold dose
Acute effect
Chronic effect
ED More key terms bout toxity Pathogens are microorganisms that can cause disease. An infection is the result of a pathogen invading our body, and disease occurs when the infection causes a change in the state of health. Vector is the carrier organism through which pathogen's can attack!
The 5 main categories of pathogens:
Parasitic worms

Remember not only pathogens can make you sick, toxins, environmental factors and other thing can to!
Risk assessment is calculating the risk , or the degree of likelihood that a person will become ill after exposure to a toxin or pathogen, while risk management is using strategies to reduce the amount of risk. Pathogens Air pollution occurs when these pollutants are released into the air. They can be natural, like pollen, mold spores, and dust partials, or they can be created by humans, such as by cigarette smoke, car exhaust and, a major contributor to air pollution, the burning of fossil fuels. Air Pollution These six pollutants, aka criteria pollutants, do the most harm to human health and welfare:
Carbon monoxide, CO
Lead, Pb
Ozone, O3
Nitrogen Dioxide, NO2
Sulfur Dioxide, SO2

If you want more details of the “dirty half dozen” look at this website:
http://www.epa.gov/air/urbanair/ Photochemical Smog = Brown Smog
Formed on hot sunny days in the city when the compunds NOx + VOCs + ozone combine
Creates more ozone and NOx compounds
Hot days in cities
This is the kind of smog that covers LA as well as Athens, Greece Industrial Smog = Gray Smog
Formed by burning oil or coal! When CO and CO2 are released into the atmosphere they combine with particulates to create smog Smog Montreal Protocol:
calls for the worldwide end to CFC production Antarctica is the most exposed to UV radiation, but ozone depleted air moves over Australia, South America, and southern Africa Ozone Loss:
The process by which CFCs break down into chemicals that deplete the ozone layer Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs):
Man-made chemicals that cause ozone depletion Ozone Depletion Clean Air Act (CAA): legislation created in England in 1952 to reduce the amount of pollutants released into the atmosphere Environmental Damage from Acid Rain
Increases chemicals in soil and kills plants
Elevates pollutants in water, which kills fish
Lowers pH levels of water, which kills fish
Releases chemicals in air that harm humans
Corrodes rocks, statues, and buildings Acid Precipitation:
the process by which pollution in the air combine with water vapor to form acids that are then deposited on earth through rain, hail, or snow Acid Rain Air pollutants are usually at a higher concentration indoors then outside because of the lack of indoor air flow. Who estimates that indoor air pollution is responsible for 1.6 million annual deaths worldwide.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs): the leading cause of indoor air pollution found in carpets, furniture, plastic, adhesives, pesticides, and cleaning fluids.

Sick Building Syndrome: occurs when the symptoms of an illness can be attributed to a specific infectious organism in the building. Indoor Air Pollution This can lead to the melting of glaciers and ice sheets, rise in ocean levels, changes in precipitation patterns, increase in storms, hot days, and decrease in cold days. It can also lead to the destruction of crops and cold-tolerant species. Increase in emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases leads to an increase in the earth’s temperature. The 3 major gases are carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Climate Change Heat islands – urban areas that heat up more quickly and retain heat more then nonurban areas. Thermal Pollution Increased energy consumption: Higher temperatures in summer increase energy demand for cooling and add pressure to the electricity grid during peak periods of demand. One study estimates that the heat island effect is responsible for 5–10% of peak electricity demand for cooling buildings in cities.
Elevated emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases: Increasing energy demand generally results in greater emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions from power plants. Higher air temperatures also promote the formation of ground-level ozone.
Compromised human health and comfort: Warmer days and nights, along with higher air pollution levels, can contribute to general discomfort, respiratory difficulties, heat cramps and exhaustion, non-fatal heat stroke, and heat-related mortality.
Impaired water quality: Hot pavement and rooftop surfaces transfer their excess heat to stormwater, which then drains into storm sewers and raises water temperatures as it is released into streams, rivers, ponds, and lakes. Rapid temperature changes can be stressful to aquatic ecosystems. Why Do We Care
About Heat Islands? Communities can take a number of steps to reduce the heat island effect, using four main strategies:
Increasing tree and vegetative cover by planting more trees and adding green spaces
Replacing dark, heat absorbing roofs, as are most roofs, with light colored heat reflecting ones.
Creating green roofs (also called "rooftop gardens" or "eco-roofs");
By reducing water runoff What can be done? Temperature Inversion:
When air pollutants become trapped over cities because they are not able to rise into the atmosphere Normal Conditions Thermal Pollution Clean Water Act (1972)
Regulate and protect all surface waters in US
Safe Drinking Water Act (1974, 1996)
Monitor and increase safety of drinking water
Ocean Dumping Act (1972)
Against the law to dump sewage/waste into ocean
Oil Spill Prevention and Liability Act (1990)
EPA can better respond to oil spills Water Quality Legislation Water that has already been used by humans gose through these treatments
Physical Treatment: water filtered through screens
Primary Treatment: removes suspended solids
Secondary Treatment: removes biodegradable waste Wastewater Most important factors for judging quality of water:
pH: measures acidity (normal for water is 6-8)
Hardness: measures the concentrations of calcium and magnesium
Dissolved Oxygen: low levels of dissolved oxygen indicate that the water is unable to sustain life
Turbidity: density of suspended particles in water
BOD: measures the rate at which bacteria absorbs oxygen from the water How to Test Water Quality Sources of Water Pollution
Excess nutrients
Organic waste
Toxic waste
Hot/cold water
Coliform bacteria
Invasive species
Thermal pollution Water Pollution US Noise Control Act of 1972: gave the EPA power to set emission standards for major sources of noise Noise Pollution – any noise that causes stress or has the potential to harm human health Noise Pollution 50 50 More key Water terms! Sludge Processor
Gray Water
Dead Zone
Excess Nutrients
Point Sources Recycling is the reuse of materials and helps to minimize waste!
Primary Recycling: recycling plastic or aluminum to create the same products
Secondary Recycling: materials are used to form new products such as recycled paper to make toilet paper
Composting: organic solid waste composes and is reintroduced to the soil Recycle! Any waste that harms humans is hazardous waste!
Corrosive: waste that corrodes metal
Ignitable: waste that can easily catch fire, like alcohol or gasoline
Reactive: waste that is chemically unstable and can react easily with other compounds, sometimes resulting in explosions
Toxic: waste that creates health risks when inhaled, ingested, or absorbed Hazardous Waste Landfills Almost all solid wast that is not recycled goes to landfills. Leachate is the liquid that collects at the bottom of a landfill. This is why modern sanitary landfills are lined or pipped in a way to help prevent this wast from contaminating the soil.

Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Program - when energy released from waste incineration is used to generate electricity. 1. Which of the following is NOT a direct source of groundwater pollution?
Automobile exhaust
Wastewater lagoons
Underground storage tanks
Waste injected into deep wells
Pesticides sprayed on the land

2. Which of the following cities would have the greatest amount of gray-air smog?
New York, New York
Beijing, China
Los Angles, California
Chicago, Illinois
London, England

3. All of the following are true about sanitary landfills EXCEPT that they
Have methods of monitoring leaks in the clay and plastic liners
Pipe methane gas that’s generated to storage tanks
Pump leachate out of the landfill for treatment and disposal
Are built so that trash sits on top of the land
Contain clay and plastic liners that prevent leachate from entering the soil Chapter 8 Quiz 4. Which of the following correctly explains what happens to the level of oxygen dissolved in water when organic waste is put in the water?
The levels would remain the same after the waste was added
The levels would increase due to the availability of nutrients to animals that live in the water.
The levels would increase due to the higher temperatures of the water.
The levels would decrease due to the waste absorbing the oxygen.
The levels would decrease due to the bacteria feeding off the waste and using the oxygen to live.

5. An abundance of which of the following would indicate that water is polluted?
Trout and other game fish
Sludge worms, anaerobic bacteria, and fungi
Carp, gar and leeches
Salamanders and turtles
Insect larvae and nymphs

6. Which of the following is the most common way of disposing of municipal solid waste?
Placing in landfills
Transporting to other countries Chapter 8 Quiz 7. Which of the following gases involved in global climate change is increasing in the atmosphere at the fastest rate?

8. Which of the following choices gives the correct order of processing sanitary waste in a sewage treatment plant?
Disinfection—breakdown of organics by bacteria—solid separation
Solid separation--breakdown of organics by bacteria—disinfection
Solid separation--disinfection--breakdown of organics by bacteria
Breakdown of organics by bacteria—solid separation--disinfection
Breakdown of organics by bacteria—disinfection—solid separation

9. Which of the following is a secondary pollutant?
CO2 Chapter 8 Quiz 10. The United States was building a nuclear waste disposal site in
Wheeling, West Virginia
Yucca Mountain, Nevada
Gallup, New Mexico
Hudson, New York
Johnstown, Pennsylvania

11. Oxides of nitrogen create the pollutant
Nitric acid
Nitrogen gas
Sulfuric acid
Carbonic acid
Phosphoric acid Chapter 8 Quiz The End! Need more help!?!?! Then follow the directions below to:
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