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Biology Project

on 31 May 2013

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Transcript of Corn

Economic and Environmental cost of corn Plant Biology Plant Taxonomy Products/Uses Technology and Research Flowchart Timeline/Influences -1492: Columbus brings corn to Europe By: Augustino & Pierre Plant Project: Corn Kingdom: Plantae (plants)
Subkingdom: Viridae plantae (green plants)
Infrakingdom: Streptophyta (land plants)
Division: Tracheophyta (vascular plants)
Subdivision: Spermato phytina (seed plants)
Infradivision: Angiospermae (flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Super order: Lilianae (monocots)
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae (grasses)
Genus: Zea (corn)
Species: Zea mays (maize) Evolution/ Origins -arose through natural crossings - with gamagrass -> teosinte
- teosinte with primitive maize -> present day -variability led to numerous adapted varieties -ranged from 2-20 ft Structure - Height: 2.5-12m - Stem: 20 inter nodes, leaf grows from each - Ears: develop above a few leaves in midsection - Fibrous Roots - seminal roots: anchor seedling and provide nutrients - Nodal roots: develops at base of coleoptile, connects to kernel Corn Growth - Advantages: - Disadvantages:
- susceptible to droughts/uprooting
- intolerant of nutrient deficient soil - Growing time 58-92 days - Climate: warm weather, sun filled days - sensitive to frost - Facultative long-night plant - accumulates antibiotic substance; serves as natural defense - Modern techniques rely on dense planting: produces 1 ear per stalk Temperature -average between 68-73 degrees farenheit -can survive short exposure to low (32) and high (112) -low temperatures slow plant growth - severe temperature: High: causes damage/kills pollination Low: Freeze damage/growing point, leads to poor germination -- industrial alcohols, fuel ethanol, recyclable plastics, industrial enzymes, fuel octane enhancers, fuel oxygenates and solvents. -- Cereals, snack foods, salad dressings, soft drink sweeteners, chewing gum, peanut butter, hominy grits, taco shells and other flour products, oil specialty corn including white corn, blue corn and popcorn . - Ancient farmers domesticated maize through selective breeding - The difference between Teosinte and Maize is about 5 genes - Genetic archeology reveals wild ancestor -Small changes add up over time Irrigation -~70 % of the irrigation water is supplied by center pivot sprinkler systems

-~30 % using furrow irrigation Fertilization -corn is a heavy nitrogen user so therefore it requires a lot of fertilization.

-corn must be fertilized in spring after the seeds have been planted

-corn must be fertilized for a second time when it grows to 8 inches and once again when it reaches 18 inches. Pest Management -Corn Root Worm: To manage damage from the Corn Root Worm you should do crop rotation and not plant corn two times in a row, Root Worm Insecticides reduce the pests emergence by 25%, treating the seeds with insecticides also helps

-Corn Ear Worm: To manage damage from the Corn Ear Worm weed and grass growth should be controlled because Corn Ear Worms generally hatch in those areas.

-Corn Leaf Aphid: To manage damage from Corn Leaf Aphids, use insecticide only if the population is high because other insects (ladybugs) will eat the aphids Harvesting -When the corn is matured the corn is harvested with a grain combine which has row dividers which picks up the stalks as the combine moves through the fields

-Inside the grain combine the husks, cobs and kernels are separated

-The cobs and husks are then dropped back onto the grown to prevent soil erosion and to return plant matter to the ecosystem.

-From here the corn can be used as animal feed, sold in the market or processed into things like corn syrup, corn starch, lysine etc... Planting -In the spring farmer plant the corn seeds with row planters or similar machines.

-These row planters plant between 2 and 24 rows of corn at the same time.

-Row planters spray weed killer before planting the corn

-Corn is grown in 2 crop rotation with a nitrogen fixing plant such as alfalfa in colder climates and soy beans in warmer. Pest Management -Black Cutworm: To manage damage from the Black Cutworm you can treat the corn seeds with insecticide and/or use Foliar insecticide at their hatching

-Corn Flea Beetle: To manage damage from the Corn Flea Beetle you can treat the corn seeds with insecticide, avoid early planting dates, use Foliar insecticide on the bugs

-European Corn Borer: To manage damage form the European Corn Borer, plant corn hybrids that are resistant to the pest also shred debris after harvest (They survive throughout the winter in the debris) -- Distiller's dried grain, gluten feed and meal, high-oil feed corn for cattle, swine, poultry and fish. -- Soaps, paints, corks, linoleum, polish, adhesives, rubber substitutes, wallboard, dry-cell batteries, textile finishings, cosmetic powders, candles, dyes, pharmaceuticals, lubricants, insulation, wallpaper and other starch products. Uses of Corn - Starch/Gluten : ingredient in cooking and industrialized food products -hydrolyzed to make syrup
-fermented to make alcohol - Bio fuel from kernels - Corn steep liquor used in biochemistry -Stigmas: herbal supplements - Large quantity of epigeous mass: used for fodder Soil Requirements -Thrives in moist environment -important during silking time and kernel forming - Poorly drained or water-logged soil: root decay, poor plant growth - Warm temperature is key: affects root and shoot growth -Cool temperature: leads to unevenness in growth and developement - Causes problems with mesocotyl growth Food products Industrial Products Animal feeds Fermentation products and byproducts - Domesticated by Americas as early as 10,000 years ago -1621: First Thanksgiving uses corn -1857: Vital role in laundry industry - 1908: Henry Ford builds his first car using corn ethanol - 1935: Peak of corn farming -1940s: Agricultural revolution, tractor replace horses - 1966: High-lysine corn developed, higher protein -1989: Clear Air Act - 1995: Agricultural biotechnology is introduced - 2007: Ethanol production aids economy - 2011: value of corn at $76.62 billion Planting -Corn is usually planted anywhere from April 20th to May 10th

-Corn is planted when the soil at planting depth (2 inches) is near 50° F or above

-To receive optimum yield 28000 to 32000 seeds should be planted in 1 acre.

-Corn should be planted in 30 inch rows Economic costs -The price of corn has greatly increased over the past few years due to a greater demand of ethanol as an alternative fuel and ethanol made with corn

-Since the price of corn is rising and a many things are made from corn, this could result in higher prices for many different products.

-The value of corn produced in America is huge and composes 11% of all of America's export in agricultural goods and producing 4.5 billion dollars in exports and another 17 billion dollars with annual sales within America Environmental costs/affects -Corn is more chemically intensive than other plants such as soybeans or winter wheat

-The use and intensity of use of fertilizers have been increasing since 1994 producing negative affects such as Algae booms if it gets into the sewage.

-The use of herbicide has decreased sharply since 1994 producing a positive affect on the environment Research -Quite a bit of research is being done on finding which corn strain produces the best yield and which strains are the most resilient

-There is also research in genetically modified corn although the current genetically modifies corns are not as good as non-genetically modified corn because the latter contains more vitamins and minerals, also genetically modified corn contains toxic chemicals such as glyphosate

-Research is also being done in finding the most efficient pest control by research facilities such as the "Monsanto Company" which is supporting research in the areas of Corn Root Worm management, economic impacts of agronomic practices, corn Root Worm biology, physiology, biochemistry, and genomics Career Connections Job list Jobs connected to corn are:
- Farmer
-Environmental Health and Safety coordinator/manager (Ethanol-related job)
-Maintenance Mechanic (Ethanol-related job)
-Ethanol production operator (Ethanol-related job)
-Plant engineer
-Human Resources
-Plant Manager
-Lab Manager
-Boiler Operator
-Environmental specialist
-Commodity Handlers
-Drivers Plant Manager -The Plant Manager’s primary responsibilities include the daily management and coordination of plant operations including production, logistics and maintenance while ensuring compliance with all labor, safety, environmental and corporate policies and regulations.

-There are no strict education requirements for becoming a plant manager, but most positions require a 4-year degree in business or industrial management. Those degrees include a curriculum focused on managerial accounting, business finance, business strategy, quality and supply chain management, cost accounting and human resources.

-Some employers prefer candidates with a graduate degree in a business or technical field. Conclusion -This plant product had had a significant impact on human society and individuals in there daily lives because corn is a good food source and is also animal feed so without corn, meat prices would be higher because the animals would be harder to feed

-Corn is a large part of our economy producing around 21.5 billion dollars annually .

-With today's technology we have been able to create more resilient strains of corn; also with machinery to plant and harvest acres of corn fields in short periods of time and the different pest management techniques, corn has become much easier to plant, grow and harvest
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