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Grammar Lesson 2012-2013
Transcript of Grammar Lesson 2012-2013
Calvin SaeJun Park GRAMMAR LESSONS! Coordination and Subordination Verb Tense Main Clause
A main or independent clause can stand itself as a sentence alone. It includes a subject and a verb.
Diane kicked the soda machine.
A sentence containing two or more main clauses.
To connect two or more main clauses, use the coordinating conjunction to show the connection between these two clauses. Verb Tense Coordinating Conjunctions
for and nor
but or yet
so Subordinate Clause
A subordinate or dependent clause cannot stand itself as a sentence alone. It begins with a subordinating conjunction. It also includes a subject and a verb.
After Amy sneezed all over the tuna salad Complex Sentence
A sentence containing containing one main clause and one subordinate clause.
To connect a main clause and a subordinate clause in a single sentence, use the subordinate conjunction. Subordinate Conjunction
after once until
although provided that when
as rather than whenever
because since where
before so that whereas
even if than wherever
even though that whether
if though while
in order that unless why Subordinate Conjunction
Subordinate conjunction has 2 jobs.
1) provides transition between two ideas in the sentence. This transition will indicate time, place, or cause and effect relationship.
2) reduces the importance of one clause so that a reader understands which of the two ideas is more important. Shifting Point of View There are three points of views:
First Person: When a character narrates the story with I-me-my-mine in his or her speech
Advantage: Easily to understand the thoughts of the narrator and see the world depicted in the story through his or her eyes
Second Person: The author uses "you" and "your", although it is considered rare. This point of view gives ability to author to speak directly to the readers
Third Person: There are two types of third person. First is "Third Person omniscient", in which the thoughts of every character are open to the reader. Second is "third person limited", in which the reader enters only one character's mind. "Third Person limited" differed to first person because the author's voice, not the character's voice. Hey guys I made a tutorial for you first timers!
How to save and exit (VERY IMPORTANT!):
1) look at the icons in the upper right side
2) see the 5 icons? click on the 5th icon (it looks like a door with an arrow sticking out)
NOTE: if you want to save only, check the icons at the upper left. See the 2 icons? use the 2nd icon (looks like a disk)
How to add frames:
1) click on the "add frames" icon at the tool bar above.
2) be sure to use "draw rectangle frame"
3) click on any place you want and hold
4) while holding, drag it into squares like you are highlighting something
5) voila! a new frame. you can rotate or resize it with the icons at the corner (circle for rotate and square for resize).
How to type a text:
1) double click on any empty space
2) tada! a text box!!!
3) type in what you want
4) drag this text box to the rectangle frame
5) this text will automatically merge with this frame. that way, you can edit both of them at the same time when resizing or rotating.
6) When dragging frame with a text in it, be sure not to click on the text, only on the frame, otherwise, you will be dragging text away from the frame
How to edit the text in the frame???
1) double click on the text you want to edit.
2) there you go! happy editing!
NOTES: it's too far, how do zoom in this slide quickly?
1) double click on this slide!
How to organize your notes:
1) see the slides on the left side? you can arrange the order of your slide by dragging and dropping
NOTE: I will be working on the "Edit Path" so it would be helpful if you arrange your slide in order on the left.
How to zoom in and out???
1) move your mouse icon to the right side. make sure you are in the middle of this line since the zoom icons are invisible
2) if these icons suddenly appears, you got it!
3) if you want to see the FULL view of this entire presentation, click on the home button above the zoom icons
NOTES: if you have a computer mouse (not the laptop one) then you can zoom in and out using the scroll wheel.
I guess that concludes the tutorial. Please type in any comments if you have any problems with Prezi. Verb Tense Shifting Point of View Coordination and Subordination Inconsistent Point of View She believed that the American Dream required hard work. You wouldn't know how much work effort it required until you work really hard. Consistent Point of View She believed that the American Dream required hard work. She wouldn't know how much work effort it required until she worked really hard. Examples Shifts Point of View A shifting in point of view is distracting to the reader and can cause confusion, changes in perspective How to Correct Unnecessary Shift in Point of View Verbs come in the past, past participle, past perfect, present, present participle and present perfect form. Past Reread the sentences and highlight or mark each of the point of view words
Change point of view of the unnecessary pronouns to align them with the primary point of view that has already established in the first sentence Present This form describes an event that has occurred previous to today.
For example: She saved
Judy saved thirty dollars. You can use this acronyms!
F = for
A = and
N = nor
B = but
O = or
Y = yet
S = so Is occurring right now! At this very moment right in front of you!
For example: They walk
Let's finish our homework. 2 patterns in writing using coordinating conjunctions
1) When you connect 2 main clauses with a coordinating conjunction, use a comma.
MAIN CLAUSE + ( , ) + (coordinating conjunction) + MAIN CLAUSE
EXAMPLE: I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak French. 2) When you have 3 or more items in a series, you can put in the comma before the coordinating conjunction
ITEM + ( , ) + ITEM + ( , ) + (coordinating conjunction) + ITEM
EXAMPLE: My favorite food is spaghetti, French fries, and burritos. EXAMPLE: The bowl of chicken soup is hot, and the bowl of cream soup is cold. EXAMPLE: As Samson blew out the birthday candles atop the cake, he burned the tip of his nose on a stubborn flame.
Burning his nose > blowing out candles The more important idea belongs in the main clause, the less important in the clause introduced by the subordinate conjunction. He jogs swiftly on the long sidewalk, and then they trip over a small ladybug. He jogs swiftly on the long sidewalk, and then he trips over a small ladybug Past Participle A verb ending with "ed" or "en"
For example: eaten, beaten
My soccer team has beaten every team on the west coast. Present Participle EXAMPLES OF TRANSITIONS:
TIME) Catherine will wash the sink full of her dirty dishes once her roommate Shane cleans his globs of shaving cream from the bathroom sink.
PLACE) We looked on top of the refrigerator where Jenny will often hide a bag of chocolate chip cookies.
CAUSE AND EFFECT) Because her teeth were chattering in fear, Linda clenched her jaw muscle while waiting for her turn to present. A verb that ends with "ing"
For example: eating, sleeping, practicing
The mechanic is working on my truck. Past Perfect Present Perfect The past perfect shows action in the past just as simple past does, but the action of the past perfect is action completed in the past before another action.
For example: John raised vegetables and later sold them. (past)
John sold vegetables that he had raised. (past perfect). The present perfect consists of a past participle with "has" or "have". It shows action which began in the past but which continues into the present or the effect of which still continues.
For example: Kelly taught for ten years. (simple past)
Kelly has taught for ten years. (present perfect) EXAMPLE: Ronnie begins to sneeze violently whenever he opens the door to greet a fresh spring day. A participle is a modifier attached to a verb. This gives the verb the ability to describe the subject in a sentence. These modifiers can be "ing" for present or "ed" for past. Singular for Three Points of View
First Person: I, my, me, mine, myself
Second Person: You, your, yours, yourself
Third Person: He, she, it, his, her, its, him, her, herself, himself, itself Plural forms for Three Points of View
First Person: We, us, our, ours, ourselves
Second Person: You, your, yours, yourselves
Third Person: They, them, their(s), themselves Controlling Shifts in Verb Tense Do not shift from one tense to another if the time frame for each verb or state is the same.
For example: The instructor explains the diagram to students who asked questions during the lecture.
Explains is present tense, referring to a current state; asked is past, but should be present ask because the students are currently continuing to ask questions during the period.
Correct: The instructor explains the diagram to students who ask questions during the lecture.
For example:The doctor suggested bed rest for the patient, who suffers from a bad cold.
Since suggested is past tense suffers needs to be was suffering which is also past tense. 2 Patterns in writing complex sentences
MAIN CLAUSE + SUBORDINATE CLAUSE
EXAMPLE: Nate shook his head and sighed as he puzzled over the algebra problem.
SUBORDINATE CLAUSE + ( , ) + MAIN CLAUSE
EXAMPLE: When the doorbell rang, Ryan slammed shut her text book and rose to pay for her pizza.