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What is Ecology?

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James Hasell

on 17 December 2013

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Transcript of What is Ecology?

There are 13 ladybugs!
An Organism
Any single living thing; the smallest level of organization in any habitat
Like a ladybug...
The individual is part of a population that contains other members of the same species
This population belongs to a community of
different species
that interact with each other
This is a population of ladybugs
There are 3 types of Succession...
Primary Succession
is the series of changes that occur in an area where no soil or organisms exist.
All the
living and nonliving
things that interact in the area
Secondary succession

is the course of events that changes an ecosystem but there are still organisms and soil left.
A Pioneer Species
is a species that is
first to establish itself
in an area where
nothing is growing
-or in an area that has been devastated by fire,flood, plowing etc.
Moss And Lichen

Hydrologic Cycle
The way water travels, is transferred, and is transformed within Earth.
Carbon Cycle
The way carbon is recycled, stored ,and replaced throughout our planet. Carbon is essential for things to live to give organisms the right type of air that they need.
Nitrogen Cycle
The way nitrogen in earth is change into different forms that are used by organisms. Bacteria is a very important part of transforming the nitrogen into nitrogen that organisms like humans can use.
Is the process where nitrogen is transformed into different forms. This is a very essential part of the Nitrogen Cycle. The one that bacteria does is called nitrification.
What is Ecology?
It deals with the relations of organisms to one another and the and their physical surroundings.
First we'll start with Levels of Organization:
Biotic Interactions :
Competition arises when two or more individuals (or populations) rely on the same limited resource
Limited Food or Resource
is the biological interaction where a
(an organism that is hunting)
feeds on its prey
is a close ecological
between the individuals of
two (or more) different species
There are many different types of Symbiosis depending on which organisms benefit.


- both species benefit-
Bees gets nectar and flowers get pollinated
- one species benefits, the other is unaffected-
The Clown Fish gets a well protected home while the Sea Anemone is unaffected
-one species benefits, the other is harmed-
Tape worm feeds off of the human while the human loses nutrients and food.
Limiting Factors
What is a Limiting Factor
A limiting Factor
is anything that
causes a
population to decrease
in size.
Any nutritious substance that people or animals eat or drink, or that plants absorb, in order to maintain life and growth.
Such as...
An apple
A transparent liquid that is the basis of fluids in a living organism. Needed to survive.
Some uses?
Plants absorb it and animals drink it.
Shortage of water is a BIG deal.
A place giving temporary protection from danger or bad weather.
Some are .....
A tree, a burrow, or a cave.
A tree, a burrow, or a cave.
The amount of density in a population.
How much room the animals have
in a area.
Infects and sickens the population limiting it and leaving many animals vulnerable to predation. Space plays a role because if there is not enough of it the disease will spread easier.
If there is not enough rainfall in an area or a disaster happens this all affects the population.
Nesting sites
Not having space or availability for nests will decline population of animals since they cant reproduce and eventually their predators.
Parasitism and Predation
as the amount of parasites in a population increase it decreases leaving them weak and sick. But then predation occurs and takes out the weak ones slowing down the spread or stopping it.
How is Energy Transferred?
The Three Main Energy Roles Are...
First, lets start with Energy Roles
An organism's energy role is determined by:
How it obtains energy
How it interacts with other organism in the ecosystem
Also known as Autotrophs
They capture the sun's energy and convert it to food
Also known as heterotrophs
They have to consume other organisms to get their energy
Some only eat plants (herbivores), some only eat other animals (carnivores), and some eat both (omnivores)
Do not make their own food
They break down wastes and dead organisms to obtain energy
They return the raw materials to the ecosystem
Ex. Plants
Ex. Animals
Ex. Fungi & Bacteria
The Animal Eventually Dies
Provides nutrients for plants
Provide a source of energy for animals
There are three type of consumers
Tertiary Consumers
Animals that eat plants to get their energy
Primary Consumers
Secondary Consumers
Ex. Grasshopper
An animal that feeds on smaller plant-eating animals in a food chain
An animal that feeds on secondary consumers for energy
Ex. Rat
Ex. Snake
This is a Food Web
Food webs show how organisms interact with each other within an ecosystem
These are Trophic levels
A Food Chain (highlighted) is a series of organisms each dependent on the next as a source of food
They are usually between 3 or 4 organisms that share a common ecosystem
They group organisms that obtain their energy from the same source
Thank You, Now I know a lot about Ecology !
Ecology is:
A branch of biology
Ecology can be broken into 6 main concept clusters:
Levels of Organization
Cycles of Matter
Biotic Interactions
Limiting Factors
Energy Transfer
Without this process of transporting and transforming matter within the Earth, key elements like carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen would be locked into one form forever.
The area will grow over time...
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Surface runoff
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Snowmelt runoff to streams
Plant Consumption
Gaseous Losses
nitrification through
Clay Minerals
Organic Residues
Organic Matter
Soil Carbon
plant respiration
human emission
microbial respiration and decomposition
fossil carbon
air-sea gas
surface ocean
respiration and decomposition
ocean sediments
deep ocean
reactive sediments
nitrogen-fixing bacteria
in root of a plant
nitrogen in atmosphere
nitrifying bacteria
nitrifying bacteria
nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria
decomposers(aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and fungi)
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