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Horses in the Late 1800's
Transcript of Horses in the Late 1800's
Horses used during 1800's The Mustang horse, of Spanish decent, was originally called the mestengo, meaning untamed. The Mustangs were wild horses that the Native Americans tamed and rode in warfare, but for them cavalry saddles and bridles were not used. They rode without a saddle, which is known as bareback. Outside of Native Americans, they were probably used the most commonly as Western horses, their surefootedness and compact body making for an excellent cutting or roping horse. Quarter Horse Mustang Thoroughbred Thoroughbreds, which are now commonly used for racing, are very versatile, agile and light horses. They were used a little for racing in America; Andrew Jackson raced and owned Thoroughbreds in Tennessee before becoming president of the United States, but their main purpose was to improve cavalry horses. Appaloosa Horse Appaloosa Horses were used by the Native Americans as well, but unlike the Mustang they didn't make their debut as Western horses until a little later. Both the Mustang and the Appaloosa are a few of the Native American horses that helped to influence the Quarter Horse. * As seen in movies, such as Glory and Gettysburg, Arabian horses were NOT used in the Civil War. Arabian horses were not used in the Civil War, nor were they used for farming. Arabian horses were imported to America frequently after 1893, because at that time the Chicago World Fair had an exhibit from Turkey of 45 Arabian horses. Two of these stayed in America to become the foundation stallions for our country. Vocab cutting cows - separating a cow or calf from the herd for a short period of time.
trot canter A present day western show horse. This horse is a Quarter Horse. A present day english show horse. This horse is a Hanoverian. - most common breeds, not all of them. Farming horses Horses were also used for farming. They could pull heavy wagon loads of whatever crops the farmers needed to harvest. Also, the plowed the fields so that the farmers could plant the seeds for the crops they would grow to feed their families and make profit. These horses would be used for logging as well, so a farmer could hitch up his team, go cut down a tree and use the horses to drag it back for firewood or to saw into boards for a building. Horses used for farm work were almost always draft horses because drafts are massive and can pull immensly heavy loads. A team of Beligan horses plowing the land so seeds can be easily planted. A team of Percheron horses pulling a heavy log to use for firewood or to be sawn into wooden planks at the nearest sawmill. A team of Beligian horses pulling a wagon. These horses, if not being used to pull wagons could also be ridden. Farmers relied heavily on horses for transportation. Horses in the late 1800's what they did and how they were used... So, as you can see, horses were very important to the survival of mankind both in warfare, and in growing food to support their owners during the late 1800's. Conclusion Horses have drastically less impact on our lives now and most people don't rely upon them for survival anymore. Horseback riding for most of us is a sport or a pastime that we enjoy. This is a short clip of me and Lilly completing a 2' 6" jump course bareback. Lilly is a 4 year old Arabian mare. She is owned by someone else, but I ride her once a week and train her for the owner.
- Hannah 1540 Spaniards introduced horses to the New World. 1600 to mid 1800's Spanish horses despersed by settlers throught the Southwest and California. Indian tribes disperse them further into the Great Plains. Horses from the herds of "mestengos" escaped and became feral, or wild while Americans begin to settle the West. 1859 In Nevada, settlers brought horses to the interior of the Great Basin where they roamed semi-wild on public land. Ranchers raised horses to sell to the mines and freight co mpanies. To meet the demand for larger horses they introduced draft stallions to the herds. Late 1800's The Mestengo has been almost completely wiped out from the west. Mining in the Great Basin decreases, lowering the demand for horses. Ranchers became less diligent about maintaing their herds. 1897 Nevada passes a law allowing citizens to shoot unbranded horses on government lands. 1901 Due to protests of the Nevada ranchers that their horses were being shot, the 1987 law was repealed. Early 1900's Mechanical equipment begins to replace horses on farms. Many are turned wild when people buy machinery. Native American's on horses Native American's were among the first in the New World to domesticate and train wild horses. Obviously, Native American's did not have the tools to create the complex tacking (saddle, bridle, ect.) that we have today. They mainly rode bareback, which is without a saddle, but with a bridle that is similar to a hackamore. In Native American warfare, they developed techniques of riding that are similar to todays vaulting on horseback. Horses were a very important part of Native American culture which can be seen in their numerous designs that involve horses. Pinto horse with a soft rope hackamore Native American riding an Appaloosa Before battles, Native Americans would paint symbols on their horses that, in their legends and myths, would give the horses extra speed or better vision in the upcoming battle. Arabian United States map in 1850
United States map in 1900 In 50 years, the United States of America's size severely increased. This was because people continued moving and settling west. They needed horses or mules and sometimes oxen to make the far journeys across the country because they had heavy wagons. Also, if the Civil War had not been won in favor of the North, the United States of America would not comprise of its 50 states that we know today. In the war, the Union cavalry had a slight advantage in the fact that the horses being used in the war were a government funded project and the soldiers did not have to pay for them if they were injured, while the Confederates had privately owned horses. The Confederates actually had a larger cavalry that was more experienced, but the soldiers lacked the money to get new horses when their old ones were injured or killed, so the North's cavalry was an advantage that would help win the war. 50 years
trot - the gait of a horse or other four-footed animal, between a walk and a canter, in which diagonal pairs of legs move forward together. canter - riding term for a three beat mode of forward movement. It is the only gait at which there is a moment where all four feet are off the ground. The footfall is like a gallop, but more controlled. cavalry - combat troops mounted and trained to fight on horseback. western riding - a style of horseback riding which evolved from the ranching and warfare traditions brought to the Americas by the Spanish Conquistadors, and both equipment and riding style evolved to meet the working needs of the cowboy in the American West. roping cows - capturing cows with a lasso or lariat. english riding - a style of horseback riding that is seen throughout the world. There are various events such as jumping, dressage, eventing, and trail classes. The cavalry would ride similar to an English style, although their cavalry saddles would be deeper and sturdier for warfare than the average english saddle. bareback - riding, any style, without a saddle. hackamore - a bitless bridle used as reins. Pressure on the nose and jaw are used to control the horse. Morgan The Union army, specifically the army of Potomac tried to procure specific horses such as Morgans, for their cavalrymen. Like the Mustang, Morgans have compact, powerful bodies with a cleanly arched neck. Just but looking at them, you can tell that they have Arabian influence, in the semi-dished face and the long tail, along with their surefootedness. Cincinnati General Grant's famous horse Ulysses Grant was a Union general in the Civil War, who later became president of the United States during the Reconstruction period. While he was in the war, his favorite warhorse was Cincinnati. Cincinnati was the son of Lexington, General William Tecumseh Sherman's horse. Lexington was a famous Kentucky racehorse and was relied upon for his speed in the war, and his son, Cincinnati was given to Grant, to serve him well. Grant rarely allowed anyone else to ride his horse, and after the war, when Grant became president, the horse came to live with him at the White House. Cincinnati lived until 1878. Ulysses S. Grant's war memorial in Washington D.C. depicts Grant astride his favorite warhorse, Cincinnati.