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Transcript of Berlin
Friedmann (1986) How to Analyze Berlin? Spatial Differences “Cities can be understood adequately only in relation to broader, national and transnational political-economic trends”
Abu-Lughod (1999) Unique city-center
Lower density in the urban core
Culturally and socially differentiated neighbourhoods
Working class and immigrant neighbourhoods located downtown Developmental differences in each region led to polarization of the country.
West Germany: Free-market capitalist system
East Germany: State-run communist system Stopped the migration of East Germans into the West
Decreased cross-border exchanges, leading to greater polarization of the city.
West Germany much more open to guest worker migrants
East Germany was less open to non-communist state workers. 2. Historical Context 3. Field Research + Fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989.
Physical reunification of Berlin and the dissolution of East Germany.
Berlin re-established as the capital of unified Germany.
Restructuring of the East-German economy and growing impact of globalization shaped Berlin. Construction of the Berlin Wall National Unification: Fall of the "Eastern Block" National Division: WEST
GERMANY BERLIN End of World War II Urban Division: East Berlin West Berlin Preserved Wall Segment Kreuzberg and Wedding: Spatial Organization East Berlin West Berlin Immigrant Population The proportion of migrant workers in West Berlin rose from 1% to 16%, stayed at 1.6% in East Berlin.
Economic expansion in the West lead to large number of Turkish and Yugoslavian migrant workers.
First wave of workers were housed in the areas adjacent to the Wall (West).
Proximity to the wall, plus movement of citizens outwards resulted in cheaper housing. National/Urban Division National Unification Growth of Berlin as a global city following amalgamation lead to new wave of immigrants.
Large number of refugees from the ruined "communist block"
"Second Wave" should be uniformly distributed over former East and West Berlin.
Yet the established migrant worker communities acted as magnets for the new immigrants.
World City Hypothesis explains transnational migration to Berlin, but not the local settlement patterns. Kreuzberg and Wedding: Socio-Economic Organization Examples of Urban Decay in Wedding Industrial Labour in Germany After reunification, industrial jobs were lost in East Germany.
East German industry could no longer effectively function after the collapse of the Eastern Block.
Deindustrialization and further unemployment in Germany from the global reorganization of labour.
Shift to post-industrial economy and related unemployment is a common trend described in the Global Cities Hypothesis. Immigrant Neighbourhoods and Deindustrialization
A large proportion of immigrants during the period of separation were employed in the industrial sector.
This specialization of the immigrant workforce meant that the non-German population was over-proportionally affected by the deindustrialization.
The continued influx of unskilled labourers to specific neighbourhoods, coupled with poor employment opportunities results in urban decline. Socio-Economic Census Data Conclusion Use macroscopic theories, such as The Global Cities Hypothesis, to explain general immigration and employment patterns.
Use local historical events to explain the specific settlement patterns and persistent polarization.
Urban initiatives in Berlin focus on integration and social cohesion through labour equality and job training to immigrants in the city.
Proper solutions to the problem can only be developed through the same sort of contextual framework developed in this case study.
Local forums held to discuss the problem directly with community leaders.
Think globally but never forget to act locally. THANK YOU