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# 02 Skill Building: Using the Geographer's Tools

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## Paola Ruiz

on 22 September 2016

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#### Transcript of 02 Skill Building: Using the Geographer's Tools

Maps may show different details depending on scale. Cartographers provide basic map elements to help us translate these codes. Almost all maps have several common elements. They include a distance scale, a directional indicator, and a key.
Maps
are flat representations of all or part of Earth's surface.
Lines of longitude are drawn in a north-south direction.
Longitude
Are drawn in an east-west direction.
Latitude
A
globe
is a scale model of Earth.
Patterns of lines, circle the globe in east-west and north south directions. This pattern is called a
grid
.

Is made up of lines of
latitude
and
longitude
.
Organizing the Globe
Skill Building: Using the Geographer's Tools
The intersection of these imaginary lines helps us find the exact or absolute location of places.
Lines of
latitude
measure distance north and south of the
equator
(Imaginary line that circles the globe halfway between Earth's North Pole and South Pole.

Also called
parallels
because they are always parallel to the equator and each other.
Lines of
longitude
are called
meridians
, they measure distance east and west of the
prime meridian
. This imaginary line drawn from the North Pole through the South Pole.
Hemispheres, Continents and Oceans
The equator divides the globe into two halves, or
hemispheres.
The prime meridian divide the world into the Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere.
Hemispheres
Continents
We can also organize our planet's land surface into seven large landmasses called
continents.
Landmasses smaller than continents and completely surrounded by water are called islands.
Oceans
Geographers also organize Earth's water surface into four separate areas.
Making Maps
Homework.
http://www.whatsmygps.com/
Mapmakers have different ways of presenting out round Earth on flat maps. These different ways are called
map projections.
Because our planet is round, all flat maps, no matter their projection have some distortion.
Cylindrical
Conic
Flat-plane
Cylindrical projections
are designed as if a cylinder has been wrapped around the globe. The cylinder touches the globe only at the equator. The meridians are pulled apart and are parallel to each other instead of meeting at the poles.
Conic
projections are designed as if a cone has been placed over the globe.
Flat-plane
maps are those that appear to touch the globe at one point, such as the North Pole or the South Pole. It is useful for showing true direction for airplane pilots and ship navigators.
Great-Circle Route
Drawing a straight line on a flat map will not show the shortest route between two places.

The shortest route between any two places on the planet is called a
great-circle route.
UNDERSTANDING
MAP ELEMENTS
Distance Scales

Real distance between points on a map.
Maps of small areas can show more detail than maps of large areas.
Directional indicators
A directional indicator shows which direction map are north , south, east and west. Most maps show direction with a
compass rose.
Legends
A map's legend, or key, identifies the symbols on a map and what they represent. Cities, roads and other features.
Other Elements
Inset map
are used to focus in on a small part of a larger map.

Using Special-Purpose Maps
Climate and precipitation maps
Mapmakers use some maps to show weather patterns and atmospheric conditions.
Precipitation
maps are paired with climate maps. The word
precipitation
refers to condensed droplets of water that fall as rain, snow, sleet, or hail.
Population and Economic Maps.
Population maps give you a snapshot of the distribution of people in a region.
Elevation Profiles and Topographic Maps
Some maps focus on an area's land features. Elevation the height of the land above sea level.

The purpose of some maps is to show just the
topography
or elevation, layout, and shapes of the land.
Lines to connect points of equal elevation above or below the sea level.
A special kind of topographical
map is called a contour map.
Climate Graphs and Population Pyramids.
Maps are not the only special tools geographers use to study the world around us.

Climate graphs and population pyramids
A Climate graph shows the average temperatures and precipitation in a place.
A population pyramid shows the percentages of males females by age group in a country's population.
ATLAS
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