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Genetics

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Aaron Hubler

on 20 January 2016

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Transcript of Genetics

Genetics
Genetics (p108 in textbook) is the study of how traits are passed on from one generation to the next. In other words the study of heredity.
This includes things like cloning and genetic engineering.
It explains why you look the way you do and have some of the traits you have. But how much? Is everything dependent on genetics?
Genetics is used in breeding racehorses and livestock, and even dogs. Do you have a purebred dog? Do you know what it means that it is purebred?
Scientists are studying genetics to try and cure or prevent diseases.
I am sure you have heard of superheros who got their powers from some mutation. THATS GENETICS!

In your notebook write a definition for GENETICS.
Heredity
Heredity is the passing of traits from parents to offspring. In other words it is traits being passed down from one generation to the next, from parents to kids.
Heredity is why you might look like your parents, or why when your dog has puppies they have the same coloring as the parent!
In humans traits are passed down by their parents, the child inherits one complete set of chromosomes from the mother and one complete set from the father.
Mendel is known as the father of genetics. He worked with traits of pea plants to develop the basic ideas about genetics that we still use today.
Trait
Traits are the different forms of a characteristic. Traits are the noticeable characteristics of a person or other organism.
For example your hair color (blonde, brown, black) is a trait. So is your eye color.
Behavioral traits may be how a person acts. Do they have a sense of humor?
What are 5 traits that you have? Did you get them from your mom or your dad, or neither, or maybe you don't know?
Traits are determined by what allele is present on a gene. You will learn more about that later.
A widows peak is a trait that can be inherited through genetics. It is when your hair comes to a point on your forehead. Who has a widows peak in these pictures? Do you have a widows peak?
Gene
A gene is a factor that controls a trait. It is a section on the DNA that controls a characteristic. For example you have the color eyes you have because somewhere in your DNA, there is a section of information that makes your eyes the color they are. You have a widows peak or not because a section of DNA on one of your chromosomes has instructions for that trait. SO...a gene is what controls one trait. Your genes control your traits, BUT your environment has some control as well

The picture shows that the gene is one section on a chromosome. (remember chromosomes are made up of DNA.)
Alleles
Alleles are different forms of a gene. In other words they are the different possible ways a trait can show up.
For example: you may have an allele for blue eyes for a gene in your DNA, or you may have an allele for brown eyes for a gene in your DNA. The gene is the place on the DNA and the allele is instructions for how it shows up.
Alleles can be dominant or recessive. So you may have two different alleles, but only one will show up because it is dominant and the other is recessive.
Sometimes the word allele and the word trait get used in the same way, but they are a little different.
The picture below shows two chromosomes that have instructions for the same information, but one of the genes has different alleles. SO the genes have different information for that trait.
Recessive and
Dominant Alleles
Use your book or notebook to fill out the rest of the vocabulary squares. (page 110-115 in textbook)
Be sure to understand how these terms are related.
Heterozygous & Homozygous
Heterozygous is the same as Hybrid and Homozygous is the same as Purebred.
Genotype & Phenotype
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