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how we study cells, parts of cells

Jean Battinieri

on 1 March 2018

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Transcript of Cells

How are they different?
How are they the same?
How do we study cells?
Two main types of Eukaryotic cells
What do you already know?
What do you already know?
Animal cells and Plant cells
they have the similarities of all cells
but have membrane bound organelles too
has no nucleus
has a single chromosome called a nucleoid
simple (not complex)
has ribosomes
cell membrane
might have flagella
might have pili
might have cell wall
might have capsule
has a nucleus
more complex
has multiple chromosomes
has ribosomes
has cytoplasm
has cell membrane
has membrane bound organelles
both have:
cell membrane
Beam of electrons passes through specimen
Specimen is thinly sliced – cross section
Magnifies to 200,000x
Specimens are dead
Transmission Electron Microscope
Beam of electrons goes back and forth over specimen
Gives 3 dimensional image
Magnifies 100,000x
Specimens are dead
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
Transmission Electron Images
Scanning Electron Images
Scanning Electron Microscope
2 basic types
Scanning Electron Microscope
Transmission Electron Microscope
Uses beam of light
Specimen very small, thin, transparent
Magnifies 2000x (yours 400x)
Specimens can be live or dead
Compound Light Microscope
Transmission Electron Microscope
any way they are not the same
make a list on your own
Similarities between eukaryotic cells and their functions
rough endoplasmic reticulum
serves as a storage area for newly formed proteins to be exported outside the cell
molecules use this to move from one side of the cell to the other
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
serves as storage area for proteins to be transported outside cell
makes lipids and steroids
make proteins
free ribosomes make proteins needed within the cell
ribosomes on the RER make proteins to be exported out of the cell
golgi apparatus
sorts/ packages/ delivers proteins and lipids throughout the cell
use enzymes to digest molecules
helps white blood cells destroy foreign substances like viruses and bacteria
recycle older or damaged organelles
transport vesicles
move proteins from RER to golgi
converts chemical energy in the form of glucose into chemical energy in the form of ATP
makes ribosomes
DNA contained in them directs the production of proteins
often considered the "brain" of the cell because it contains both the NUCLEOLUS and CHROMATIN which are essential to protein production
determines the shape of cells
movement of cells
movement of organelles
movement of chromosomes during cell division

involved in the movement of organelles, cell shape, cell motility, chromosome movement in cell division
made of proteins called tubulin
microtubule organizing center
produces spindle apparatus that separates chromosomes and divides them between the two new cells
animal cells only
forms cilia and flagella
move single celled organisms through their environment
used in movement of cells
other important organelles/cell structures
convert light energy into chemical energy during photosynthesis
mainly in plant cells
stores water, enzymes, waste products
mainly in plant cells
chromoplasts contain red, yellow, orange pigments that help in collection light energy
leucoplasts helps in the formation of starch grains and synthesis of oils and proteins
both found mainly in plant cells
DNA found on chromatin
directs production of proteins
makes ribosomes which make proteins
make proteins
found free in cytoplasm, on RER, or nuclear envelope

smooth ER
diverse metabolic processes, which vary with cell type
synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates, detoxification of drugs and poisons, and storage of calcium ions
found in testes and ovaries - make hormones, in liver cells to detoxify, in muscle cells to store calcium ions
receives proteins from RER
comes from golgi
carries out intracellular digestion
contain enzymes that remove hydrogen atoms from certain molecules and transfer them to oxygen, producing hydrogen peroxide
also known as actin filaments -two strands of actin
functions in cell shape and its changes, muscle contraction (with myosin)
used in microvilli which increase cell's surface area
bears tension as pulling force
Intermediate filaments
made of different types of proteins (such as keratins) depending on cell type
maintain cell shape
anchors the nucleus and other organelles
formation of the nuclear lamina
nuclear lamina - inside nuclear membrane maintains shape of nucleus
in plant cells
channels in cell wall
water and small solutes can go from cell to cell
Cell Junctions in ANIMAL CELLS
Tight junctions - creates seals around plasma membrane (skin cells)
Desmosomes - fasten cells into sheets (attach muscle cells to each other)
Gap junctions - cytoplasmic channels allowing ions, sugars amino acids and other molecules to pass, communcation
Full transcript