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Cells

how we study cells, parts of cells
by

Jean Battinieri

on 6 June 2016

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Transcript of Cells

Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
How are they different?
How are they the same?
How do we study cells?
Two main types of Eukaryotic cells
Cells
What do you already know?
What do you already know?
Animal cells and Plant cells
they have the similarities of all cells
but have membrane bound organelles too
has no nucleus
has a single chromosome called a nucleoid
small
simple (not complex)
has ribosomes
cytoplasm
cell membrane
might have flagella
might have pili
might have cell wall
might have capsule
has a nucleus
more complex
larger
has multiple chromosomes
has ribosomes
has cytoplasm
has cell membrane
has membrane bound organelles
both have:
ribosomes
cell membrane
cytoplasm
chromosomes/DNA
TEM
Beam of electrons passes through specimen
Specimen is thinly sliced – cross section
Magnifies to 200,000x
Specimens are dead
Transmission Electron Microscope
SEM
Beam of electrons goes back and forth over specimen
Gives 3 dimensional image
Magnifies 100,000x
Specimens are dead
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
Transmission Electron Images
Scanning Electron Images
Scanning Electron Microscope
2 basic types
Scanning Electron Microscope
Transmission Electron Microscope
Microscopes
Uses beam of light
Specimen very small, thin, transparent
Magnifies 2000x (yours 400x)
Specimens can be live or dead
Compound Light Microscope
Transmission Electron Microscope
compare
any way they are not the same
make a list on your own
Similarities between eukaryotic cells and their functions
rough endoplasmic reticulum
serves as a storage area for newly formed proteins to be exported outside the cell
molecules use this to move from one side of the cell to the other
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
serves as storage area for proteins to be transported outside cell
makes lipids and steroids
ribosomes
make proteins
free ribosomes make proteins needed within the cell
ribosomes on the RER make proteins to be exported out of the cell
golgi apparatus
sorts/ packages/ delivers proteins and lipids throughout the cell
lysosomes
use enzymes to digest molecules
helps white blood cells destroy foreign substances like viruses and bacteria
recycle older or damaged organelles
transport vesicles
move proteins from RER to golgi
mitochondria
generates energy in the form of ATP
nucleolus
makes ribosomes
chromatin/chromosomes
DNA contained in them directs the production of proteins
nucleus
often considered the "brain" of the cell because it contains both the NUCLEOLUS and CHROMATIN which are essential to protein production
cytoskeleton
determines the shape of cells
movement of cells
movement of organelles
movement of chromosomes during cell division
microtubules
involved in the movement of organelles
centrosome
microtubule organizing center
produces spindle apparatus that separates chromosomes and divides them between the two new cells
centrioles
animal cells only
forms cilia and flagella
cilia
move single celled organisms through their environment
flagella
used in movement of cells
other important organelles
chloroplasts
convert light energy into chemical energy during photosynthesis
mainly in plant cells
vacuole
stores water, enzymes, waste products
mainly in plant cells
Plastids
chromoplasts contain red, yellow, orange pigments that help in collection light energy
leucoplasts helps in the formation of starch grains and synthesis of oils and proteins
both found mainly in plant cells
DNA found on chromatin
directs production of proteins
makes ribosomes which make proteins
ribosomes make proteins and send them to the Rough ER
smooth ER
sends proteins to cell membrane
golgi
receives proteins from RER
lysosome
comes from golgi
Full transcript