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The Humanist Approach
Forms of Humanism
Why was it important/influential?
How did the Arts change from medieval Times?
What was humanism and why was it so important?
The classical concept that was most important to Renaissance thinkers and artists was the belief in the dignity and the potential of the individual.
They Believed people could shape lives through their own efforts and talents. The Christian worldview was to, develop one's talent and was to serve god because god had provided you with those talents.
Human beings can use the power of reason that is, thinking to find truth for themselves.
It is important for a person to have an open, curious and questioning mind.
People can achieve great things through learning.
Individuals should be skilled in many different areas. They should develop not just their minds but also their bodies and spirits.
Humanist ideas spread mainly among the wealthy people in society.
Reading and discussing ancient writers became a kind of fad among the new merchant and business class.
Classical texts that were admired and studied by Renaissance scholars were written before the beginning of Christianity .
Scholars spread words about humanism through books etc.
Artists became interested in portraying the beauty of the human body and natural world.
Patrons: people who paid artists to produce works, playing an important role in promoting the arts during the Renaissance.
In middle ages most art had religious themes and this continued through the Renaissance, influenced by humanist ideas. Renaissance artists began to interpret theses subjects in new ways.
Renaissance artists used
natural world: symbolizing and using light and shadow on the faces and surroundings.
texture and pattern: on fabrics and clothes, realistic details, elegance, detail in hands etc.
De Architectura was rediscovered during the Renaissance.
Influenced Renaissance architects to includes feathers of classical building in their work.
Renaissance architects raised the status of their professions from skilled laborer to artists.
Sculptures makers in middle ages were seen as craftspeople rather than artists.
Just as wealth raised the social status of merchants and business people their artistic genius raised the status of artists.
At he same time, book or texts were written in vernacular that is, language that people, such as Italian, French andEnglish became more accessible to.
Humanism influenced writers to focus on expressing their thoughts and emotions.
The Middle Ages hadn't forgotten the Greek and Roman civilizations. The Roman language Latin remained the language of the church and scholars. But during the Renaissance educated people began to look at ancient works differently. They started to admire the eloquent writing styles and became interested in ideas about society, politics, history, and the arts. The worldview had changed due to intercultural contact with earlier civilizations Greek and Roman civilizations form the Classical Civilization. Also the Islamic Civilization preserved the knowledge of the Classical Civilization and further developed it. (sciences, maths, medicine, etc)
Early humanist thinkers of the renaissance began to see their time as glorious where ideas and values of old times were "reborn". Greek and Roman manuscripts had been preserved throughout Europe and the Muslim world. Humanists such as Francesco Petrarch collected them and made copies and translations of them. They wanted to make these ancient works available to the maximum readership.
Civic Humanism was interested in how people can be good members of society. Civic humanists believed that being a responsible citizen meant educating yourself about history and political issues and working to improve society. Cicero had the idea that public service was the duty of everyone in society was very influential.
Humanism and Education
Humanists put a great emphasis on education during the Renaissance. A lot of humanists were dedicated teachers who ran their own schools. They had a strong belief that is was important to train young peoples characters, bodies, and minds. This was called "educating the whole child". They also encouraged a curious and questioning attitude in the students. Many humanists were hired as tutors for children from wealthy families. They also added to the traditional subjects studied during the Middle Ages. The ideas of humanism were probably spread alot considering they taught the next generations.
Humanism and Religion
The classical texts that were studied by Renaissance scholars were written before Christianity. The Renaissance thinkers emphasized ideas and values such as individual achievement and importance of history and the arts. Religion had continued to play an important part in their lives, just like the Middle Ages.
By: Jaskeerat Hothi Jesse Chana
- an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher. Discovered that the Earth revolves around the Sun, not other way around.
- German born mathematician and astronomer Johannes Kepler was the first person to determine that the Earth and planets orbited the sun.
- He was the first to propose the heliocentric (sun-centered) theory of universe though it was far from accurate it was closer than any others before him.