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Timeline: The Post-classical Period
Transcript of Timeline: The Post-classical Period
600 CE- 1450 CE
By Crystian Rodriguez
Islam comes into Africa
Islam spread through Africa through trade.
The trans- Saharan trade- silk and gold products were traded
The Indian Ocean trade
The Atlantic Ocean trade
Most Africans were converted to Islam except the North African countries (Christian)
The Start of the Tang Dynasty (China)
After the Sui Dynasty, the Tang Dynasty took over
In the Tang, Buddhism took place, but then the Chinese began to support the
The Chinese also supported the Ministry of Rites
This idea describes the claim of getting a job in a high office through examinations
The most difficult title of the examinations was
Muhammad flees from Mecca
Muhammad fled to Medina
Reasons for fleeing:
Muhammad was threatened by the Umayyads
The tribes in Medina invited Muhammad to settle their disputes
Muhammad eventually won over the Umayyads and the people of Mecca in producing more converts of Islam
Taika Reforms Occur in Japan
These reforms were established by Emperor Ktoku
The Taika Reforms aimed at centralization and greater power of the imperial court
One was the land reform- which was based on Confucian ideas
These reforms were very similar to the rules in China
The Taika Reforms eventually unified Japan
Korea's Independence from Tang Dynasty
Korea gained its independence through the alliance between the Tang and Silla (a korean kingdom)
As, Silla and the Tang army defeated all the Korean kingdoms, the Tang army let Silla rule over Korea
Therefore, Korea had its independence
Islam Incursions and Raids in India
The first Muslim raids into India were from the trading contacts in India
These contacts were what brought Muslims to contact with the Indians
As they raided, little effort to convert made the Indian people remained Buddhist or Hindu
Byzantine Empire defeated Arabs
As the Arabs attacked Constantinople, the Byzantine Empire defeated them.
They attacked by using their best weapon.....
: a weapon which explodes when in water
The Greek fire devastated the Arab ships and made them retreat
Arabs invade the Byzantine Empire
The Arabs attacked Constantinople
The Arabs traveled through sea and by using ships
The Umayyad Caliphate Begins
In tradition, the Umayyad Caliphate was started by the Umayyad family which was from Mecca
In this society, the malawi (muslim converts) were not accepted into the society
Charlemagne's Strong Empire
Charlemagne made a strong empire in France and Germany
His empire seemed to revive Western Europe
Charlemagne mainly helped
restore church-based education
Intellectual activity recovered
died in 814 CE
He split the empire between his 3 grandsons and the empire declined without him
The Start of Keiv
Rurik was the creator of Keiv Rus
He was a Scandinavian leader
Keivan Rus basically relied the on Byzantine Empire
If the Byzantine Empire was in decline, Keiv Rus would be in decline
Keiv Rus was basically the Byzantine Empire's child
Cyril and Methodius in Eastern Europe
Cyril and Methodius are on missionaries in Eastern Europe.
They were sent to the Balkans and Eastern Europe to convert the Russians to Orthodox Christianity
They then developed a Slavic alphabet, today known as Cyrillic
Japan's Last Embassy to China
In 878 CE, Japan had its last embassy to China
For about 200 years, Japan had sent about 19 missions to China
To obtain knowledge and learning was the purpose of the missions
These missions were basically to know the secret life styles of the Chinese
Ex.: Doctors studied Chinese medicine; Priests studied Buddhism
Franks defeat Muslims in France
Charles Martel was the leader who defeated the Muslims in the Battle of Tours.
This defeat helped confine the Muslims to only Spain
This pretty much ended the Muslim threat towards Western Europe
Abbasid Caliphate Established
The Abbasid Caliphate had a revolt in 744 CE which later lead to its establishment.
In this revolt, the mawali (converts) and the Shi'a fully supported the Abbasid party and denied the Umayyad
It was in 750 CE though, in the
Battle of the River Zab
, when the Abbasid army fully defeated the Umayyad caliph
End of the Tang Dynasty
The reasons for the fall of the Tang Dynasty:
peasant's uprisings because of the heavy taxation
conflicts between the two different cliques which were the civilian court and the noble court
large dominance and number of the eunuchs which are the advisers to the emperor
The Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty began in 960 CE with the creator, Zhao Kuangyin.
During this dynasty, they revived
and its Confucian ideas
They established the examination system again and the position of women drastically decreased as male dominance settled in.
The Song Dynasty eventually split between the north Song (Jin) and the south Song
Finally, this dynasty came to an end in
Toltecs Establish Tula
After succeeding Teotihuacan in Mexico, the Toltecs established Tula in 968 CE
The Toltec's deity was Quetzalcoatl which is a feathered serpent
Their empire stretched over just central Mexico
The Toltecs had a big influence on Guatemala, Yucatan, and other areas like the north (American Southwest)
Eventually, the Toltecs came to an end in 1150 CE
Russia Converts to Christianity
Spread on plows and agricultural technology (Western Europe)
The agricultural technology introduced were:
the moldboard plow
: more curved permitting deeper digs in the soil
three field system
: two fields would be cultivated while the third would wait for the soil to get more fertilized. Then the fields would rotate.
: horses that helped with pulling the plow
Vietnam's Independence from China
The Vietnamese took advantage of the turmoil in China to gain its independence.
After the fall of the Tang in 907 CE, China was in strong turmoil and this is when Vietnam made a big rebellion against China.
Of course, Vietnam won it independence as China was in turmoil.
Animals pulling the plow
As the contact between Keivan Rus' and the Byzantine Empire increased, Vladimir I made the decision of converting to Christianity
Not only was this for himself, BUT for the whole kingdom as he organized baptisms and forced conversion through military pressure
Basically, everyone converted to Christianity because Vladimir I personally converted to Christianity.
Feudalism in Western Europe
William the Conqueror helped expand the feudal system into the kingdom.
One way was that he would give the people land for military service
William also used sheriffs to supervise the kingdom
He centralized feudalism in Western Europe
Pope Urban II
calls the First Crusade in 1095.
He did this so the Christians could free the Holy land, Jerusalem, from the Muslims.
The Christians first captured Jerusalem in 1099
The Christians not only fought for their faith, but for what they were promised
They were promise the forgiveness of sins, an entry to heaven, and the spoils from rich Arabs
Overall, there were eight crusades
Gunpowder in China
Gunpowder was invented during the Tang Dynasty in China
It was an incredible and useful weapon during war.
Gunpowder first had little impact on warfare (as it was used for fireworks) in the Tang, but during the Song, it was widely used in the armies.
The Toltecs Downfall
The Toltecs fell because of the nomadic invasions that came from the north.
Tula was also sacked and destroyed
Ghana at its peak
Ghana was at the height of its power by 10th century because of their wealth
They would tax salt and gold in trade
Ghana also rose through the conversion to Islam
Finally, Ghana came to an end in the 13th century with the Almoravid army invasion
The Schism in Europe
In 1054, Europe split up into the
Roman Catholic Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
There were many quarrels that lead to this like:
The decision of making the bread without yeast for the mass
celibacy for priests
Therefore, with these disputes the Church split
Pope Urban II
for fireworks in
1271- 1295 CE
Mongols Sack Baghdad; End of the Abbasid Caliphate
Mongols harshly devastate Baghdad by killing 800,000 people and ending the Abbasid Caliph
In 1258, the Abbasid Caliphate ended as the Mongols destroyed it
NO central authority
existed in the Islamic world
Chinggis Khan in Mongol Empire
Chinggis Khan was named the khagan at an age when he wasn't 40 years old yet.
He was the supreme ruler of one-half million Mongols
Chinggis Khan eventually
died in 1227 CE
and he split the empire to 3 of his sons and one grandson.
Ogedei was his successor
Marco Polo's Travels
Marco Polo traveled throughout Asia, specifically, during the Yuan Dynasty in China with Kublai Khan
He described all the Chinese details as he stayed in his court
He was fascinated
He also traveled to the Middle East, Russia, and the East Asian coastal regions (Japan)
Kublai Khan controls China
Kublai Khan was a grandson of Chinggis Khan
He conquered China, starting the Yuan Dynasty in China
He was fascinated by the Chinese culture and part took in the Chinese beliefs
Kublai Khan held chinese rituals and music in his court
Although, the Mongol women hated the Chinese life style as women were inferior to men
Kamakura Shogunate in Japan
The Kamakura began in 1185 and this regime lasted for about two centuries
One of the famous leaders was Yoritomo, who was obsessed with fear of being overthrown.
He killed all his relatives that seemed powerful and even shoguns (military leader)
Finally, Kamakura cam to an end in 1333 CE when the Shogunate came into power after a strong revolt.
Thomas Aquinas and Scholasticism
In the 1200s, scholasticism was flowering in Western Europe
The philosophy uses logic to solve theological problems
For Thomas Aquinas, he was a great syntheses of learning
He taught in the University of Paris
he wrote the Summas and thought you could know about natural order, moral law, and God through reason
Mali at its Peak
Mali was at its height of power because of the wealth from trade
To increase trade, they gave protection and security to the merchants
Crime was also severely punished so Mali was a safe place, too
1320s- 1375 CE
Aztec Empire Rises
The Aztecs were basically a group of a mixture of people who settled in Lake Texcoco.
They rose through their military power and by speaking the same language
With speaking the same language, it provides better communication
Their impressive fighting skills made them attractive as allies to other areas
This is why the Aztecs rose in 1325 CE.
Inca Empire Rises
The Incas lived around Cuzco and had a pretty good military.
Inca armies were always on the march
The Incas rose in power because of the many areas that they conquered
They eventually took over almost all of the west coastline of South America
Black Death Spreads
The Black Death was a contagious disease that reduced the population of different areas by a lot.
Asia: It was reached around the 1330s
It reduced China's population by 30%
Europe: It was reached around 1348
30 million people died and this caused economic chaos which results in uprisings
Middle East: It was reached around 1348
The Black Death killed many people in the Middle East
Polynesian migrations spread its culture beyond Fiji, Tahiti, and Samoa
One migration was to the north towards the islands of Hawaii
The Polynesians entered Hawaii and spread across the islands in clusters
They were organized into regional kingdoms and were warlike
The other two migrations were to New Zealand and the Easter Island (Oceania)
Spread of Black Death