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Transcript of Statistics Presentation
English Preference Tendencies and English Learning Anxiety in Primary School Children
Independent and Dependent Variables
The independent variable(IV)
is that we believe may
The dependent variable(DV)
is that we measure to see the
due to the independent variable.
- A type of independent variable.
- It may not be the main focus of the study,
but may modify the relationship
between the IV and the DV.
- It may result in an interaction between
an IV and other variables.
(cf. moderator variables)
They are not included in an original study
- They cannot be
identified in a precise way
- The researcher has not considered the
possibility of their effect
- A variable that is held constant across groups
in order to eliminate the effect of that variable
on the outcome of the study
- Whenever possible, researchers need to
identify possible factors that might affect
the result and control for them in some way
independent vs. dependent
THANK YOU !
. To investigate the correlation between
English Preference Tendencies (EPT) and English Learning Anxiety (ELA)
in Korean primary school children
. To identify the factor influencing children’s EPT
(learner variables: grades, grade, starting age, learning experience outside public school classrooms, interaction with family members, experience abroad, and the amount of time invested in English learning)
: a pilot study + final survey
(2 English teachers)
(4th grade English class)
Develop questionnaire items
25 items: individual learner factors (5), EPT (10), ELA (10)
- 3rd ~ 6th grades in a Korean primary school
- 3 classes from each grade were randomly chosen (from 1 school)
- Total number: 400 (Each class: 33 students)
*9 students did not complete the questionnaire.
Only 391 were considered valid data.
Questionnaire (3 parts)
1) Individual Learner Factors Related with English Learning
2) English Preference Tendencies Measurement for Children (
3) English Learning Anxiety Measurement for Children (
- To measure how two variables (EPT & ELA of children) are related
Correlation analysis (ANOVA)
- To examine the effect of learner variables on EPT in children
A post-hoc test
- To see the differences between the subjects
- For the effect of grade & gender on EPT & ELA
- Interacting with family members for learning English showed
significantly higher EPT (vs, not doing home study at all)
of our measurement
e.g. study acquisition of relative clauses
is running is my friend"
(only one type of relative clause)
familiarity of our instrument
How easy it is to
that there is content validity.
e.g. - Reasoning tasks
- Research on elementary school students
OMR answer sheet (unfamiliar)
How well the research
defines the construct
(element) of interest.
An essential topic in SLA research : many of the
variables are not easily defined
(e.g. aptitude, exposure to input)
of a construct
e.g. - Amount of input
- KCSAT. Listening Q.17
(reading is not a construct of listening ability)
tests used in a research study
other well-established tests
Whether the current research can
on other situation.
-SAT score : college grade (GPA)
-Middle school 1st grade. Occupation aptitude test
20 years later, Actual job?
Are the differences found for the dependent variable
to the independent variable?
A researcher must
other possible factors
that might affect the results.
e.g. learners respond by pressing a button(T,Y)
on the computer.
(left-handed people might react faster)
The findings of the study are relevant not only to the research population, but also to the
of language learners.
- Characteristics that vary
- Features or qualities that change.
- Many language programs : their own internal tests
- A test that I developed for my research =
TOEIC, TOFLE score
e.g. The participants chosen for any study
form a research population.
Inattention and Attitude
Location and Collector
& Test Effects
language background, language learning experience, proficiency level
the loss of participants during the research
Pre test – treatment – post test
Representativeness & Generalizability
Collecting Biodata Infomation
: participants know that they are part of an experiment
: Participants try to please the researcher by giving the answers
they think are expected.
fatigue and boredom
when asking participants to perform repetitive tasks.
: participants stated that his results from the two
e.g. participant was thinking about final exam- not fully concentrate
Usually in longitudinal studies, when children is involved
(they grow old)
: Physical setting
one group- noisy and uncomfortable class, the other group is not.
: Interview about British culture-
English interviewer vs. Korean interviewer
of the sample
-Our participants need to be
from the population.
Equivalence between pre- and posttests
Pre and post test needs to be equal level
Giving the goal of the study away
participants already know the goal >> affect the result
e.g. pre test >> alert participants
: conducting the pretest a few weeks before the study
(students don’t know the relationship)
: mixing research-related questions in a much larger test
Test instructions and questions
appropriate to the developmental level
of a study
Cf. validity : accuracy, adjustment
e.g. same student took the same listening test twice
1st test: 80 / 2nd test:40 = not reliable test
the characteristic of rater
To ensure our
[ 3 types of reliability testing ]
Two or more raters judge the same set of data in the same way.
Whether the researcher judge the data same ways at different times
Equivalence of Forms
- Giving the
two different times
- Determine the appropriate
between the tests.
Equivalence of Forms
of a test are administered to the
and see the relationship between two scores.
e.g. Two version of a test -KCSAT (odd, even number set)
It is not always possible to administer tests twice
so we use
to determine reliability
: divide one test into two parts.
Kuder-Richardson 20 and 21
: using the number of items, the mean, and the standard deviation
(more details: chapter 9)
-When it is difficult to measure
-An operational definition
to work with
the variables. (allow measurement)
Measuring Variables: Scales of Measurement
into two or more groups.
e.g. assign male and female group.
ordering is implied.
no implication of an equal distance between each rank order.
e.g. student test scores are often ordered from best to worst.
the order like ordinal scale
but it also reflects the
e.g. test scores
the distance between 70 - 80
the distance between 80 - 90
Stratified random Sampling
How to measure?
Simple random sampling
Every member of a population has an
equal chance of being selected
- Researchers have to select representative participants from the entire population randomly.
Stratified random Sampling
are first determined, and then participants are randomly selected.
Simple random sampling
Representativeness and Generalizability
the results of a particular study,
representativeness of the sample
e.g. a study conducted in a university setting
private language school setting
Collecting Biodata Information
so that the reader can determine whether the results are generalizable to a new context.
The choice of every
th individual in a population list
The selection of individuals who are available for study (weak point:
e.g. surveying passersby in a mall, friends, or colleagues
sample biodata form
Skills course: organizing a new group
the seating was random
Cluster random Sampling
The selection of
rather than individuals as the objects of study
Grade, Starting Age of learning English, learning experience outside public school settings, interaction with family members
The effect of Learner Factors on EPT
significantly influenced the overall EPT
Learner’s gender, the amount of time invested in English learning, and experience abroad
did not show any significant effect on EPT
Students’ overall EPT is becoming lower and their ELA higher
as they enter higher grader.
years of residence in U.S. - pronunciation
what about gender??
e.g. TOFLE test
e.g. to measure anxiety: heartbeat, trembling
(e.g. Kim Yuna)