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Applying Toury's model to an ST and TT
Transcript of Applying Toury's model to an ST and TT
Toury proposes a three-phase methodology for descriptive translation studies (DTS):
1) Situate the text within the target culture system, looking at its significance or acceptability
2) Compare the ST and TT for shifts, identifying relationships between 'coupled pairs' of ST and TT segments
3) Attempt generalisations, reconstructing the process of translation for this ST-TT pair
(1) Place the TT into its cultural system
The Spanish TT is presented and accepted as a translation; the translator's name and original title are published on the copyright page.
The TT is a direct translation from English.
Even though the target culture has a strong native children's literature tradition, the decision to select this book for translation isn't surprising given its huge success in the UK and USA, where it became a best-seller amongst both children and adults.
Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone
Harry Potter y la piedra filosofal
Applying Toury's model to an ST and TT
The fact that the book is a translation is not stressed, however. The blurb on the back cover of the TT quotes comments from reviews in the UK and Italy and emphasises the book's relevance to 'all children of all ages'.
So there is a strong suggestion that the Spanish publishers were prepared to make modifications in order to ensure its full acceptability.
(2) 'Map' TT segments onto the ST equivalents
The TT is a full translation of the ST, with no major additions, omissions or footnotes.
The choice of ST-TT pairs to examine is
in Toury's model.
In the case of Harry Potter, one of the most striking features in the book (and in most children's literature) concerns the names of characters and elements related to the school.
Sounds very Anglo-Saxon
Is kept the same, transferred directly to the TT.
House system follows the old English grammar school model.
Names are suggestive: Slytherin, Gryffindor, Hufflepuff, Ravenclaw.
All these names are also transferred directly to the TT.
Names of crucial features of life in the school
For example, the terms Quidditch and Muggles - retained in Spanish, although italicized to emphasise their foreignness.
The names of authors in the list of textbooks are quite playful, for example, '
Magical Theory by Adalbert Waffling
'. Here, the Spanish TT does not change the author's name.
Almost without exception the Spanish TT retains names.
However, when Draco Malfoy is first introduced, the translator explains the name in brackets: 'Draco (dragón) Malfoy.'
(3) Attempt to draw some generalisations regarding the translation strategies employed and the norms at work
From these findings, certain generalisations can be proposed concerning the translation norms that have been in operation: the Spanish adopts a ST-orientated translation strategy, retaining the lexical items of the English original, even when this means that the TT reader will encounter pronunciation problems and/or not understand the allusion.
Discussion of case study
Advantages of Toury's methodology:
Attempt is made to place translation within its target-culture context
It's relatively simple to carry out
Choice of ST-TT coupled pairs is far from systematic. Whilst the study of proper names produces interesting findings and names might be expected to be the most culturally bound terms, this does not necessarily mean that the overall translation strategy is the same. As suggested by Holmes, perhaps a checklist of features would be preferable.