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Death and the Afterlife

Clemson University, REL 1020
by

Hosanna Nagasaka

on 25 November 2013

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Transcript of Death and the Afterlife

Comparing
Death
and the
Afterlife
in Haitian Vodoo, Judaism, and Buddhism

Life after death in Judaism
Changing Scenes
Circle of Life: Buddhism
Haiti:
Land of Voodoo
"Bondye fe san di."


"Bondye Si Bon."

An artist's illustration of Haiti (© Photo: Maps of the World)
Haitian Voodoo Ceremony (© Photo:Nat Geo)
"God acts and doesn't talk"
"God is good."
Music Credit: Haitian Voodoo Music "Azor" (Youtube)
(Beyer)
The Iwa
Taken from the collection of M. Lehmann in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Extensive information and photo tour through the exhibition in Berlin, 2010 (© Photo: Haupt & Binder)
(Ethnological Musuem)
PETRO IWA
Younger and more fiery than the Rada
Came into prominece during era of slavery, thus reflect the rage, helplessness, and violence that accompanied slavery
Arythmic, sharp music
Some famous Petro:
Ezili Dantor
Marinette
Met Kalfu
(Caistor, BBC), (Métraux)
RADA IWA
Elder spirits
Represents emotional stability and warmth
Rhythmic and steady music
(Than)
(© Photo: Max Beauvoir)
(YouTube)
An example of a typical Haitian Funeral Ceremony
(© Photo: facade.com)
8 Lives as a Man
8 Lives as a Woman
"The Haitian people do not get afraid of death. We are sure that we come back again."

- Max Beauvoir
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=123331644
(© Photo: Huffington Post)
What are the similarities and dissimilarities between Haitian Voodoo and Judaism?
(© Photo: Victoria and Albert Museum)
(© Photo: Getty Images)
Gan Eden

"Garden of Eden"
Gehinnom
Gehenna
Sheo'l
(© Photo: Uriel Sinai/Getty Images News/Getty Images)
At the End of Life

Reverence for the Deceased

Preparation of the Body
Legacy.com
(© Photo: Zimbio)
(© Photo: JewishJournal.com)
(© Photo: Uriel Sinai/Getty Images News/Getty Images)
An example of a Mourner's Kaddish, performed by a minyan.
Notice the rituals (steps, bowing, etc.) and the tallits (prayer shawls) worn by the mourners.
"Olan Ha-Ba"
Other Interpretations of the Afterlife: Reform Judaism and the Kabbalah

(© Photo: NewKabbalah.org)
(© Photo: JewishJournal.com)
Works Cited
Beyer, Catherine N. "Bondye, the Good God of Vodou." About.com Alternative Religions. University of Wisconsin, 2013. Web. 17 Nov. 2013.
<http://altreligion.about.com/od/mythologicalfigures/p/bondye.htm>.

Caistor, Nick. “Voodoo’s Spell Over Haiti.” BBC News World Edition 4 Aug. 2003. 15 April 2005<http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3122303.stm>.

Corbett, Bob. "Introduction to Voodoo in Haiti." Haiti: Introduction to Voodoo. Webster.edu, Mar. 1988. Web. 21 Sept. 2013.
<http://www2.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/voodoo/overview.htm>.

Ethnological Museum. "Several Iwa and Flags, Iwa (spirits). Vodou. Art and Cult from Haiti." Several Iwa and Flags, Iwa (spirits). Vodou. Art and Cult from
Haiti. Universes in Universe, 24 Oct. 2010. Web. 17 Nov. 2013. <http://universes-in-universe.org/eng/specials/2010/vodou/tour/spirits/092>.

Guynup, Sharon. "Haiti: Possessed by Voodoo." National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 7 July 2004. Web. 17 Nov. 2013.
<http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/07/0707_040707_tvtaboovoodoo.html>.

Hagerty, Barbara Bradley. "Voodoo Brings Solace To Grieving Haitians." NPR. NPR, 20 Jan. 2010. Web. 17 Nov. 2013.
<http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=122770590>.

The Llewellyn Encyclopedia. "Ti-bon-ange." Ti-Bon-Ange. Llewellyn Worldwide, 2013. Web. 21 Sept. 2013.
<http://www.llewellyn.com/encyclopedia/term/ti-bon-ange>.

Métraux, Alfred. "Gods and Spirits in Haitian Voodoo." Voodoo in Haiti. S.l.: Random House, 1989. 82-95. Print.
Métraux, Alfred. Voodoo in Haiti. S.l.: Random House, 1989. 100-20. Print.

ReligionFacts. "Voodoo." Voodoo. ReligionFacts, 2004-2013. Web. 17 Nov. 2013. <http://www.religionfacts.com/a-z-religion-index/voodoo.htm>.

Tapper, Jake. "The Witch Doctor Is In Max Beauvoir Ran Voodoo's Biggest Attraction in Haiti, but He's Having Trouble Summoning the Spirits to Northwest
D.C."Washington City Paper. Washington City Paper, 26 June 1998. Web. 17 Nov. 2013.
<http://www.washingtoncitypaper.com/articles/15309/the-witch-doctor-is-in>.

Than, Ker. "Haiti Earthquake & Voodoo: Myths, Ritual, and Robertson." National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 25 Jan. 2010. Web. 17 Nov.
2013. <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/01/100125-haiti-earthquake-voodoo-pat-robertson-pact-devil-wade-davis/>.
Changing Scenes
Kabbalah believes in a primordial, universal soul of the human linking to God and the universe (Edersheim).
(© Photo: UCSC.edu)
(Wikipedia Commons)
The Mandala in Buddhism symbolizes the universe and aids in meditation (Merriam-Webster).
(Métraux)
(© Photo: Getty Images)
(YouTube)


Edersheim, Alfred. "In Death and After Death." Sketches of Jewish Social Life. 3rd ed. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1994. 148-66. Print.

Guttmann, Julius. Philosophies of Judaism: The History of Jewish Philosophy from Biblical times to Franz Rosenzweig. New York: Schocken, 1973. Print.

Rich, Tracey R. "Olam Ha-Ba: The Afterlife." Judaism 101. N.p., 2011. Web. 21 Sept. 2013. <http://www.jewfaq.org/olamhaba.htm>.

Robson, Roy R. "Judaism: A Chosen People Choosing God." THINK World Religions. Boston: Pearson, 2013. 120+. Print.

ReligionFacts. "Jewish Death and Funeral Rituals." Judaism. ReligionFacts, 2004-2013. Web. 17 Nov. 2013.
<http://www.religionfacts.com/judaism/cycle/death.htm>.

Segal, Eliezer. Life after Death in World Religions. Ed. Harold G. Coward. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1997. 11-30. Print.


BBC Religions. "Karma." BBC News. BBC, 17 Nov. 2011. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/buddhism/beliefs/karma.shtml>.

Lester, Robert C. "Buddhism: The Path to Nirvana." Religious Traditions of the World: A Journey through Africa, Mesoamerica, North America, Judaism, Christianity,
Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, China, and Japan. Ed. H. Byron Earhart. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1993. 847-971.

Neumaier-Kargay, Eva K. Life After Death in World Religions. Ed. Harold G. Coward. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1997. 87-104. Print.

Cohen, Peter. "Buddhism." Clemson University, 2013.

ReligionFacts. "Buddhist Beliefs About the Afterlife." Reincarnation and Afterlife in Buddhism. ReligionFacts, 2004-2013. Web. 17 Nov. 2013.
<http://www.religionfacts.com/buddhism/beliefs/afterlife.htm>.

Robson, Roy R. "Buddhism: Becoming Awake, Awakening the World." THINK World Religions. 2nd ed. Boston: Prentice Hall, 2011. 53-81. Print.

Snellgrove, David L. "Buddhism (religion)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2013.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/83184/Buddhism>.


Concerning Death and the Afterlife in
HAITIAN VOODOO
...

What is essential?
Voodoo is
monotheistic
, with a chief god, called Bondye
Voodoo is also
dualistic
in nature, containing two moral sides
The religion has been heavily influenced by Christianity (Roman Catholicism)

What does it mean to be human?
Adherents of Haitian Voodoo believe that Bondye is
far above human understanding
, but use songs, chants, and rituals to commemorate him.
The goal of life is to gain all kinds of experience, during one's life, until he or she merges with Bondye.

How do humans interact with the sacred?
The Iwa, spirits of the dead, are used as intermediaries between the living and spiritual worlds
It is important to note that the Loa are venerated, but not worshiped
Haitian Voodoo places a definite belief in afterlife, which consists of 2 sets of 8 lives, as man and woman, a form of existential
reincarnation

How does sacred become community?
Mourners eat, chant, and pray together for 9 days following a loved one's death
Death is celebrated by family and friends, as well as personal enemies, in order to mend temporal wounds


(Métraux)
(Edersheim)
(RelgionFacts)
(© Photo: AP Images)

Concerning Death and the Afterlife in
Judaism
...

What is essential?
Judaism, like Haitian Voodoo, is
monotheistic
, and believes in one single Creator God
Judaism is also
dualistic
in nature
While Haitian Voodoo was influenced by Christianity, Judaism can be seen as being the bedrock of Christianity

What does it mean to be human?
In Judaism,
emphasis is placed on the life of the person
rather than the extensive focus placed on the spiritual, as in Haitian Voodoo
Due to this, the concept of an afterlife is not as clearly defined as some other world religions

How do humans Interact with the sacred?
One interpretation sees death as a regathering to join one's ancestors, such as Abraham and Moses
The
Mourner's Kaddish
offers prayer that celebrates the life of the individual
Reform Judaism rejects belief in the afterlife, while followers of the mystical Kabbalah believe in the possibility of
transmigration of souls

How does the sacred become community?
After death, the body is kept company with friends and loved ones, but unlike Haitian Voodoo,
eating and drinking are prohibited
in their way of respecting the dead
Mourners gather at the Shiva House to observe 7 days of intense mourning
At the anniversary of a loved one's death, Yartzeit, the life of the dead is once again remembered and celebrated by family and friends

(Edersheim, ReligionFacts, Segal)
(© Photo: Amazon Web Services)
(© Photo: OpposingViews)
(© Photo: OpposingViews)
"Life is a journey.
Death is a return to earth.
The universe is like an inn.
The passing years are like dust.
Regard this phantom world
As a star at dawn, a bubble in a stream,
A flash of lightning in a summer cloud,
A flickering lamp - a phantom - and a dream. "
(Vairacchedika 32)
(© Photo: GreatMiddleWay)
Example of a Buddhist monks chanting the Three Jewels
THERAVADA BUDDHISM
ARHAT
NIRVANA
BODHISATTVA
ENLIGHTENMENT
NIRVANA
Tibetian Buddhism
Zen & Pure Land Buddhism
BIRTH
DEATH
REINCARNATION
(YouTube)
SAMSARA
NIRVANA
KARMA

Concerning Death and the Afterlife in
Buddhism
...

What is essential?
Buddhism is often considered as being at times
polytheistic
,
monotheistic
, and
atheistic
, and many times a philosophy rather than a religion
Everything is impermanent
, even the gods, contrary to Haitian Voodoo and Judaism
Buddhism believes that
past actions drive present circumstances
; present actions drives future rebirth
What does it mean to be human?
Life is a cycle of life birth, and death, known as
samsara

Nirvana
is the ultimate goal of a Buddhist, as a final liberation from samsara
Unlike Judaism, cremation of the dead is is allowed
How do humans interact with the sacred?
In mourning the death of a loved one, monks chant the
Three Jewels
as an affirmation of their beliefs: "I believe in the Buddha, I believe in the Dharma (law), I believe in the Sangha."
Pure Land Buddhism
places belief in a essentially deified buddha called Amitabha who will lead them to a "pure land"
Tibetian Buddhists place belief in "The Tibetian Book of the Dead," which gives insight into the afterlife
How does sacred become community?
Before death, family and friends comfort the dying and ensure them of the many possibilities ahead of them, as death is not the end
After death, family and friends mourn the dead together, wearing white instead of black


(Neumeir-Kargay, Person, ReligionFacts)
(Pearson)
(Photo: flickr)
(EverPlans)
The End

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Hosanna Nagasaka
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