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Social and Cultural Impacts in events

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Nicky Reed

on 22 March 2013

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Transcript of Social and Cultural Impacts in events

SOCIAL AND CULTURAL IMPACTS OF EVENTS Definitions What are impacts ? POSITIVES HOW TO MEASURE? The intensity of social and cultural impacts depends on... NEGATIVES MANAGING THE IMPACTS Social impacts: SHORT TERM consequences that become apparent in form of IMMEDIATE and NOTICEABLE CHANGES in the QUALITY OF LIFE of the HOST COMMUNITIES and their adjustments to the tourist industry.

Cultural impacts: of LONG-TERM NATURE, based on the CHANGES of the host community’s SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS, NORMS and STANDARDS.

Teo (1994), Brunt & Courtney (1999) Sharplay (1999) Changes in peoples:
behaviors
attitudes
perceptions
beliefs
knowledge
well-being
learning and skills -Shared Experience - people coming together to share an experience

-Revitalizing Traditions - bring traditions to life, conservation of culture (art,craft dance)

-Building Community Pride - reinforcing pride in the community, improving the community e.g environmental efforts

-Expanding cultural perspectives - learning about different cultures

-Introducing new challenges and ideas- showing people things they may not have seen before.

-Assisting Community Groups- development projects, e.g building of a new school, helping with standards of living and health - Community Alienation- Local council makes decisions which are not necessarily what the community want

-Negative community image- break down of moral values.

- Bad Behavior- conflict, crime, prostitution, substance abuse, gambling

-Social dislocation- feeling of being displaced and vulnerable in the community

-Loss of Amenity- impacts quality, comfort and convenience of life

-Demonstration Effect- (effects on the behavior of individuals caused by observation of the actions of others and their consequences) -Social and Cultural Impacts are hard to measure-
Examine:
engagement of the community
satisfaction of the community
benefits to the community
legacies (post-event and on-going)
economic improvements in the community •length of stay
•geographical location
•importance of tourism /events to the community
•level of tourist development
•cultural polarisation
•competition for resources
•type of tourist/activity- (Cohen classification of tourists) •effective tourism planning to maximize host benefits
•community participation in tourism planning
•government legislation
•monitor levels of tourist activity
•education of tourist residents Impacts can be:
Direct/ Indirect
Positive/ Negative
Process/ Outcome WHO?
within the community, local residents
wider community, people in locality
external to the community (visitors, tourists, business stakeholders) Some methods:
before and after comparisons
interviews
focus groups
observations
surveys
but How reliable can these be? TOURISM IRRITATION INDEX (DOXEY 1976) -A theory on how hosts and guests interact, related to the theory of culture shock-There are 4 stages:

Level of EUPHORIA- the hosts welcome strangers, mutual feeling of satisfaction.

Level of APATHY- tourists become a target for profit making, do not know whether to welcome the guests or not.

Level of IRRITATION- expansion of facilities needed, angry with tourists, concerned about crime, disruption, cultural rules being broken.

Level of ANTAGONISM- Local people/ hosts blame tourists for the problems. Become hostile towards the guests Tomorrowland -Positive Impacts -
Shared experience - 'Friends from over 75 countries’ all experiencing the same event. Hosting over 180,000 guests.
“most international gathering on the planet.”- music fans from over 214 countries,10 more than attended the 2012 Olympics!
Introduces new and challenging ideas to other cultures- new concepts of presenting music.
-Negative Impacts-
Social dislocation - Tickets sold out in a record breaking 1 second, many will feel excluded and isolated not being able to get tickets. Influx of tickets went to Spain and USA, gives a negative image with in the event.
Bad behavior- Substance abuse associated with the type of music played. LONDON 2012 POSITIVES:
Building Community Pride
Shared Experience (gatherings, FB & Twitter)
Opening Ceremony (Britain Culture going worldwide)
The legacy (the park and new homes)
Assisting community groups (free tickets to children)
lower crime rates NEGATIVES:
Security concerns and terrorism threat
Traffic chaos, queues, inconveniences
Pollution, noise, air traveling
Limited tickets
Money issues: increased taxes for locals RIO DE JANEIRO CARNIVAL References And Recommended Reading Quiz Positives Rio Carnival promotes urban life -revitalizing traditions and building community pride
Deep community involvement
Participants are residents of Favelas (slums)
The event is expected to draw 756,000 people from across the globe
The event is broadcasted internationally Negatives The carnival highlights segregation and the lack of fraternization between the communities
Inflated prices to watch star samba schools exclude brazilians from attending
Cost of Sambadrome (permanent structure) What is the difference between Social And Cultural Impacts?
Say three positive impacts that would occur in an event?
Say three negative impacts that would occur in an event
Why are social and cultural impacts so hard to measure?
Give an example of a method that might be used to measure the impacts.
How would you manage the impacts before the event?
How many stages are there in Doxey’s tourism irritation index?
Name one of these stages?
And finally name a positive and negative impact that either, the Olympics, Tomorrowland, or Rio de Janeiro have on the local community. BBC Sport, 2013. 20 memories of London Olympics. BBC Sort. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/0/olympics/19238810 [Accessed 19 March 2013].
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