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Tropical Dry Forest

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Ashlyn Sumsion

on 27 May 2013

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Transcript of Tropical Dry Forest

Tropical Dry Forest The Tropical Dry Forest is frequently compared to the Tropical Rain Forest though it's only difference is the longer dry periods that vary from every location. It also sometimes blend into the Savannah biome because of its low elevation. Tropical dry forests are found between the Tropics and generally between 30 degrees N and S Latitude. There main locations have been found in some parts of Africa, Mexico, India, South Central America, Australia, and some Tropical Islands. Abiotic Factors Continued.. The sunlight in a Tropical Dry forest is essential in the creation of the biome. In many regions the precipitation levels are seasonal and in many months it doesn't rain at all. The average amount of rain fall in a year is about 60 to 600 mm of rain, depending on the location. The tropical Dry Forest biome has an average temperature of 20 degrees Celsius. The sun is more direct in most regions of a Tropical Dry forest, resulting in some plants not able to hold enough water and drying out and their leaves falling to the ground. The seasons that are found here are Spring, but mostly Summer because of its location close to the equator and it's ability to receive lots of sunlight. This graph shows the year round temperature and precipitation. Biogeochemical Cycles Biotic Factors Continued The biotic factors found in a Tropical dry forest continue to survive by adapting and also surviving through Symbiotic Relationships. The Three Types are Commensalism, Mutuialism, and a Parasitism. A mutualistic relation ship means both organisms in the relationship benefit from eachother. A Commensalistic relationship is when one organism is benefited while the other is indifferent. Lastly, a Parasitic relationship is when one organism benefits while the other is harmed. An example of a Mutualistic Relationship would be inclusive of the forest's most common tree is the Acacia tree that grows with peeling bark to take in sunlight when it's leaves fall off, due to the dry season. It also has thorns along it's branches, that are convenient for Acacia ants because they also provide nectar and water for them. The Acacia Tree and Ants live in unison; The tree provides food and even shelter for the ants once they have emptied the thorns on the tree's branches, and in return, the ants defend the tree against other predators and even fight against clingy vines that threaten the tree. The Epiphyte plant is an example of a Commensalism relationship. The Epihpyte plant is also known as the "air plant" due to the factor that it has no direct contact to the ground. It perches on other sturdier plants in order to receive the maximum amount of sunlight. It is known as a Commensalism relationship because it doesn't harm any of the plants it grows off of, only uses them for their own benefit. An example of a Parasitic is the relationship between Sycamore Lace Bugs and the Sycamore Tree. The Lace bugs are known for eating the foliage of the Sycamore trees for nutrients they need, but while they eat, they damage its ability to absorb sunlight. If there is enough destruction, the tree will die. It is a Parasitic Relationship because of the harming of the tree while the bug is not harmed. The Tropical Dry forest has a wide variation of different species of organisms, along with the various types of abiotic features including the unique temperature and rain falls according to each region. The Soil of the this Biome is very rich with nutrients and essential to the plants and organisms living there. The soil is replenished during the dry season of the Tropical Dry forest which is commonly found between December and March. During this time, the sunlight dries out the leaves which makes them fall to the ground. This allows sunlight to reach the ground, and nutrients are restored. The dry season is good for the soil, while it is harmful to the plants. The Elevation for the Tropical Rain Forest again, depends on the region and location. The elevation levels are generally lower that results in the constant high temperature. The average measurement is 200 to 1000 meters above sea level. The geography of the forests are between 30 degrees Latitude, and just above or below the equator. Biotic Factors The Biotic factors of a Tropical Dry Forest include many types of plants and animals, all adapting to the harsh climates that are required to survive there. The animals most common here are many different species of insects, monkeys, frogs, birds, and ground animals such as badgers, and Tasmanian devils. The are also larger animals the live in some regions of Tropical dry forests such as Rhinos, Elephants, and Giraffes. Abiotic Factors The Soil Tropical Dry forest during it's Dry Season Tropical Dry forest during Wet season Greenhouse Effect Elevation The light green shows the most common range for the Tropical Dry forest or in this case, the Submontane . The Tropical Dry forest is effected by the Greenhouse effect because of the rise of heat that is abnormal in depending regions. Because trees supply oxygen through their leaves and the heat takes away the water harvested in the leaves, the trees have been unable to supply the normal amount of oxygen needed, continually harming the atmosphere. Adapting to survive, the trees have become receptive to sunlight with the bark on the tree naturally peeling of, to reveal a green center (Canopy Layer) that receives the photons of sunlight to get energy, but doesn't produce oxygen. The rise of greenhouse gas effecting the rise in temperature also harms the soil that is essential for slowly growing plants to replenish the land that need to gradually grow. The soil tries to harvest water, but is continually drying out do to the repetitive hot days. The tree in this picture show the loss of leaves and bark. The Carbon Cycle In the Carbon Cycle in the Tropical Dry Forest, it begins when sunlight reaches the plants. From before, the plants don't always absorb light through the leaves, but through the bark underneath the out layer. The organisms that are herbivores eat plants (those that are carnivores eat animals who eat vegetation), and animals release Carbon into the atmosphere when they breathe. Also, plants and animals release Carbon through cellular respiration contributing to the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere. Through all of the releasing, plants again take in the CO2, and the cycle repeats. Nitrogen Cycle The nitrogen cycle occurs when the nitrogen in the atmosphere is absorbed by the soil through assimilation, in the plants. When the plants or food are consumed by animals, the nutrients such as Ammonium and proteins are consumed as well. Then as plants and animals die, they decompose and release again the nitrogen they consumed and denitrifying bacteria releases the N2 into the atmosphere. Phosphorus Cycle The Phosphorus cycle starts with rocks and minerals as the go through erosion and lose phosphates as it turns into soil. Plants then take in the phosphates in the soil that animals eat. The phosphates then return to the soil during excretion and decomposition. Since phosphates don't take long to process through animals, the longest part of the cycle is the erosion and returning of nutrients and phosphates. Limiting Factors The most common limiting factor in a Tropical Dry forest is it's long dry periods with no rain. Having no water slows the rate of plant growth. Most of the plants in dry forests take years to grow instead of the normal amount of time of a few months. Water Cycle The water cycle that occurs in the Tropical Dry forest goes much quicker that in other biomes and also doesn't happen as often because of the restriction of rain. It starts with condensation, or the compacting of water molecules in gas form in the sky creating clouds. When the cloud gets too heavy with molecules, the water then turns into precipitation and it rains onto the land. Then plants use the water and it also contributes to water runoff (But is uncommon and doesn't occur in the tropical Dry forest) and is then evaporated again in gas for to continue the cycle. The Producers The Consumers The Producers in a Tropical Dry forest mostly consist of Deciduous plants, but also includes shrubs, Orchids, and various types of Fungi. They are classified under producers because they help sustain other life forms (mostly animals) and they produce their own nutrients and energy. They receive their own energy through photosynthesis and soaking in the photons of sunlight. They also use the nutrients from the soil. The consumers of the tropical dry forest are the larger, and more dominant species of animals. The main consumers are the Tigers, Badgers, Tasmanian Devils, Monkeys, Rhinos and Giraffes. These animals are classified under consumers because of their ability to rely on another organism to produce their food. Consumers eat plants which are producers that recieve their energy from the sun. Herbivores The main herbivores in a Tropical Dry Forest include monkeys, deer, and other types of small land mammals. There are also herbivores that are bigger such as rhinos and Elephants. Their diets consist of mostly leaves and twigs of shrubs and trees. Most of the habitats and niches of herbivores are below trees and underneath the shrubs that grow in the forest. The bigger mammals live near bodies of water and in the grass of the forest as well. Carnivores The main carnivores in the Tropical Dry forest include the big mammals. Many big cats like the Tiger and Lion are included. There are also types of birds and small land animals like the Tasmanian Devil that are also Carnivores. The diet includes other animals since their diet is meat. These animals include the Herbivores and each size of the prey depends on each predator. Their most popular niches are low in the tall grass as well so that they are able to hide and hunter well. The energy pyramid consists of the trophic levels of primary producers, Primary Consumers, Secondary Consumers, and Tertiary consumers. Each level receives less energy from the first starting with the Primary producers. These producers consist of mostly plants that get energy from the sun's rays. Their energy that the contain is up to 100%. The energy that is stored in the Primary Producers is then consumed by the Primary Consumers that are Herbivores and small insects, and they receive 10% of the energy that was stored in the producers. The Primary Consumers are then eaten by the Secondary consumers that consist of the small carnivores of the biome. They will receive 1% of all the energy from before. Lastly, the Secondary consumers are eaten by the Tertiary consumers that receive 0.1% of all of the energy from before, thus the progression of the energy pyramid. Food Web and Energy Pyramid The Onimvores The Fungi and Decomposers The Omivores or "all eaters" in the tropical dry forest contist of Jaguars, the African Fox, and the Leopard. These animals can eat both producers and consumers. Their main diet consists of leaves and twigs from the forest floor like the Herbivores, but also small forest animals as well, like badgers and lemurs. Some of the many types of fungi that grow during the Tropical Dry forest in the wet season are Aurificaria luteo-umbrina and Cheimonophyllum. These 2 types of Fungi and decomposers are grown on the trunks of trees and roots that are wet, and get their nutrient from near by decomposing organisms. Aurificaria luteo-umbrina Cheimonophyllum http://facultyweb.cortland.edu/NeoTropicalFungi/NSF/GenericPage.asp?vspecies=sp%2E&vgenusid=117&vCID=4 Works Cited HUMAN IMPACT The Dry Forest makes up most of the world's forests and cover over one third of the Earth's land area. That means that these forests also contain 70% of the Carbon from living things in the ecosystem and nearby areas. Because of the acceptance of a large amount of Carbon into the atmosphere of this biome, not only are the plants not able to keep up with the levels of CO2, but because they can't keep up they are damaging all the other organism's lives that depend on them. Another major impact on the Tropical Dry forest is deforestation. The growth of population of humans demands more food, and the includes more land to farm for food AND more room to establish communities. The rate at which humans are destroying the land of the Tropical Dry forest is fast and will continue if the effect goes unnoticed. The soil of the Tropical Dry forest is valuable to humans because of high level of nutrients in it. Because of this, farmers are eager to clear out the habitat of many native plants in animals in order to farm for produce and money. This needs to end before 1/3 of the Earth's land and forests, including the animals within, are gone for good. This picture show the land of Bolivia Tropical Dry Forest in Mexico from 1975 to 1996 of farming and cities. As the populations grew, the deforestation to make room of populations grew also. Humans are disturbing the patterns of the water and carbon cycle through contributing the the levels of CO2 everywhere. The Green House Effect contributes to the temperature levels of the Tropical Dry Forest and dries out the leaves of the trees faster; which also occurs because the water cycle is not in full cycle as well. This occurs in the soil loosing nutrient and not being able to support the organisms that need it, forcing those organisms to find nutrients some where else. Not only does deforestation disturb the ecosystem and biome, but also the many tours through the tropical dry forest and the unnatural movement of plants and organisms in the biome wrecks the natural process and order of the process in which it needs to grow. http://tropicaldryforestsofmexico.blogspot.com/2011/11/current-human-impacts.html How do humans reduce their effect on this biome? WE STOP. I also propose that there should be a restriction on the amounts of tour groups or vacation resorts based on the Tropical Dry Forest. If one wants to study or simply see the magnificent ecosystem, a sum of money will have to be required, and that money will be used to plant trees and pay scientists to do more research on this biome. By doing this, the natural cycles won't be disturbed as often, resulting in a healthier environment. We need to desperately stop clearing these forests to create room for our population and also for the production of products we "need". These forests help us live by providing an intake of CO2 and allow Biodiversity that helps us survive. Our population should start using other resources and reduce waste including the waste of space to stop the damage these forests. Such as.... We plant different plants every year so that there is no need to take soil from these ecosystems to replenish our own soil with nutrients. We start to make use of our waste to build or even energize other things such as our houses or even cars.. There must be a restriction on things we throw away- so that we must recycle. By recycling, our products are sort by materials so that different products can be made again. Through this, pollution won't become a problem and we will be making use of other resources. There should also be a restriction of power or energy big companies can use, resulting in the solution of more energy efficient products and renewable resources. Through this, pollution such as CO2 will be reduced, and the greenhouse effect will be restored slowly to its normal cycle, and the Tropical Forest will become a more sustainable forest, not drying out as fast because of the rise in temperature. http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/tropdry.htm Through these small changes, BIG differences will happen. Not only will the Tropical Dry forest become a better biome, but all other ecosystems will become healthier as well. With more energy becoming efficient and more opportunities available, more research can be done to improve even more. The more our population grows, the more we need to improve on our ability to reduce the things we take advantage of. Our earth can be saved by small actions we take NOW, and if we don't do small things like reducing our reliance upon non-renewable resources, it may be to far to turn around. http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/bio100final/deck/2857241 http://thebirdzoo.com/Tropical%20Dry%20Forest.htm http://swisher.wikispaces.com/09+Tropical+Dry+Forest http://www.environment.tc/Tropical-Dry-Forest.html http://traveltips.usatoday.com/animals-live-tropical-dry-forest-100072.html http://affluentretirees.com/unjvt/tropical-dry-forest-animals http://www.drusillas.co.uk/animals/rhinoceros-iguana http://gal1.piclab.us/key/plants%20found%20tropical%20dry%20forest http://www.docstoc.com/docs/83779714/Tropical-Dry-Forest---PowerPoint http://biomesduff.wikispaces.com/Tropical+Dry+Forest+Period+2 http://apassionforscience.pbworks.com/w/page/36643672/1E1_2011%20Group%201%20-%20African%20Savannah START SIMPLE. Taxes should begin to be reinforced (such as higher taxes or raised taxes) so that people become serious about REUSING. Ideas for energy efficient production-
Solar Panels
Renewable resources like hydro-power or wind power
SmallER facorties- to reduce waste but also produce products. POPULATION http://www.psdgraphics.com/psd-icons/green-recycling-symbols/ As a society, our population is constantly growing and producing. This causes the need for more room to keep our population growing and prevents areas from becoming overpopulated. If the need comes to clear out parts of the Tropical Dry Forest for communities, the result will be having to keep as much native land as possible. Replenishing the land with native plants and animals will also be a requirement. More trees and other plants must be planted than the one's that were destroyed to keep the natural order. Through this, environments will somewhat continue to develop, and survive instead of wiping it out and damaging all other things around it such as biodiversity or the greenhouse effect. By making things like Solar panels more common, they will become cheaper to produce and use with the population of the product, while also saving money by producing independent energy.
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