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A History of the World in 6 Glasses: Timeline
Transcript of A History of the World in 6 Glasses: Timeline
The beverage was discovered in a region by the name of the Fertile Crescent around this time. The Fertile Crescent consisted of the area between Egypt and Mesopotamia. This is where humans first began building large settlements and began the practice of farming.
This beverage was first produced during the Neolithic period in a region near Iran and Armenia known as the Zagros Mountains.
The practice of making coffee into a drink is credited to Muhammad al-Dhabhani , a member of the Sufi order of Islam.
Tea comes from the camellia sinensis and is an infusion of buds, leaves, and flowers of that bush. It is thought to have evolved in the Himalayan jungles. People discovered the healing effect tea had when it was rubbed on wounds, and the "invigorating" effect that is felt when chewing on its leaves.
Exact date discovered is unknown; between 10,000 BCE and 4,000 BCE is the estimated time in which it was discovered
The exact date of the emanation of wine is also unknown, but is believed to be around 9000 and 4000 BCE
Distillation itself dates back to the fourth millenium BCE, but was popularized around the year 1100.
Coffee originated in the Arab world and first became popular in Yemen, where the process of making the coffee beans into a drink began in the 1400s.
The first cup of tea was brewed somewhere between 2737-2697 BCE in China by the emperor Shen Nung.
Soda water was invented in 1767, while the actual beverage Coca-Cola was invented in 1886.
It was discovered that cereal grains soaked in water would taste sweet, and if gruel was left sitting out for a few days it would turn into a fizzy drink where the yeasts from the air transformed the gruel into alcohol, which is what we now call beer.
The major switch from hunting and gathering to farming occurred around 9000 BCE when people began growing their own grains for their own usage instead of gathering wild grains.
7000 BCE - 5000 BCE
The practice then spread throughout the Fertile Crescent between 7000 BCE and 5000 BCE and areas were made into farming villages.
Writing first began to emerge in Sumer in and this is when the recorded history of beer began.
Beer was mentioned in "Epic of Giglamesh", a book written about the Sumerian king.
In Mesopotamia, beer was thought to have mythological origins. Many tales have been told and even written in the tombs of Egyptian kings like Tutankhamen and Ramses the Great.
Beer was also used as a form of currency. The workers who built the pyramids of Giza around 2500 BCE were paid in three or four loaves of bread along with four liters of beer.Using beer as currency showed that beer became "synonymous with prosperity and well-being". Beer was considered a necessity of life, as well.
Beer was the first alcoholic drink and as it was becoming a staple it spread to Europe where they grew to enjoy it as well.
The earliest physical evidence of wine, appearing in the form of a red residue on the inside of a pottery jar, was found in Hajji Firuz Tepe in a village in the Zagros Mountains.
Beer was later recorded as being used as a form of medicine in 2100 BCE, where a tablet with a list of recipes for medicine was found.
An Egyptian medical text titled "The Ebers Papyrus", documented how beer was used in various medications.
One of Egypt's earliest kings, King Scorpion I was buried along with 700 jars of wine
Around this time, vineyards by the Nile Delta were being established so that Egypt could produce its own wine.
Vines were being cultivated in Crete, possibly even in mainland Greece as well.
According to Greek myths, the gods drank nectar, and wine was introduced for consumption by humans.
In Greece and Crete, wine was considered a drink of the elite. Having access to the beverage was showing status.
Later, there were different kinds of wine for everyone. Everybody had access to it, even slaves. It was the symbol of of social differentiation.
Rome became the largest power in the Mediterranean after the fall of Carthage. Romans then began making wine, when the best winemakers headed from Greece to Italy to make wine similar to that of the Greeks. Italy became the new center of trade
Pliny the Elder, a Roman writer, estimated that there were eighty different types of wines in the Roman Empire, two-thirds of which were grown in Italy.
The Epic of Giglamesh Tablet
One of the first Europeans to experiment with the process of distillation was Michael Salernus, who was educated on the process from Arab texts. Only a select few people knew this process at the time.
Throughout Europe, distilled wine was thought to be a "miraculous new medicine" that was called "aqua vitae" or "water of life"
One person who very strongly believed in the medicinal power of distilled wine was Arnald of Villanova, a professor at Montpellier, who wrote instructions for distilling wine.
Aqua vitae started to change from being a medicinal beverage to a more recreational drink. The word about the process of distillation was being spread by the assistance of a new invention, the printing press, developed by Johannes Gutenberg.
The first printed book about distillation was published and written by Austrian doctor, Michael Puff von Schrick.
People started to distill wine in their own homes after learning about the practice and offered it for sale on feast days. This was widespread enough that that the German City of Nuremberg banned the process.
The New World
The first permanent English colony was established. Many people in the colony wanted an alcoholic beverage,but it was very difficult to provide alcohol because the climate was not ideal for the cultivating of vines
When the third colony was established in Massachusetts, settlers made sure they had brought along enough beer with them. The ship Arbella brought over ten thousand gallons of beer.
English cereal crops were very difficult to cultivate in the harsh climates, so instead of relying on imported beer from whatever was available to them.
During the second half of the seventeenth century, rum became available. This was a cheaper alternative to brandy and did not have to be shipped across the Atlantic. Rum was a stronger beverage, too, and was quickly popularized in the colonies.
The Molasses Act was then put into action and placed a duty of six pence per gallon from foreign colonies so that it was encouraged to purchase molasses from the British sugar islands, where there was no duty.
By the time the beverage reached Cairo, coffee became the center of controversy. Instead of remaining a religious drink it became more of a social drink and Muslim scholars said that coffee was intoxicating and therefore should be prohibited just like alcoholic beverages.
The first coffeehouses were established during the rule of Oliver Cromwell. The coffeehouses were considered more respectable alternatives to taverns. The first one was opened by Pasqua Rosee. By the year 1663, there were eighty three coffeehouses in London, but most were destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666. More were established in their place following the fire.
King Charles II did not like the idea of these coffeehouses because they allowed freedom of speech and he became suspicious of it. On December 29, 1675 he issued a "proclamation for the suppression of coffee-houses". It was realized that the proclamation would be ignored, so the proclamation was dropped.
The first coffeehouse opened in Marseilles. In the same town, doctors were arguing about how coffee is not good for peoples health. They stated that coffee "burned up the blood, induced palsies, impotence and leanness". The claims were not enough to stop the growth of the widely popular and trendy beverage that had coffeehouses flourishing in many cities by the end of the century.
Gabriel Mathieu de Clieu took it upon himself to introduce coffee in the French West Indies. He was able to get a hold of a cutting of a coffee tree who carefully transported it back to the West Indies. He then gave cuttings of the plant to his friends so that they could cultivate too. He also sent the plants to other islands such as Guadalupe and Santo Domingo. Coffee exports to France began in 1730.
At the Cafe de Foy on July 12, Camille Desmoulins put the French Revolution in motion. The French Revolution literally began in a cafe.
The spread of tea to China was helped by Buddhist monks. They discovered that tea improved concentration and aided in meditation, due to the presence of caffeine.
Lao-tzu founded the religion Taoism and believed that tea was an ingredient in the elixir of life.
Tea became the national beverage of China during the Tang dynasty.
The first tax on tea was imposed.
Small amounts of tea were brought over to Lisbon privately in the 1550s but it wasn't until 1610 that the first commercial consignment of tea was brought over by a Dutch ship.
Tea reached France in the 1630s and England in the 1650s, the first type of tea being green tea. Tea then began as a medicinal drink.
In the 1770s, tea smuggling from Britain to the American colonies was at its peak so that they did not have to pay the duty imposed on tea being imported from England.
The Tea Act of 1773 was put into action, and the result was the Boston Tea Party of 1773, where protestors dumped shiploads of tea into Boston Harbor.
Joseph Priestly, a scientist and English clergyman, lived next door to a brewery and became infatuated with "fixed air" and investigated the properties of the gas. He later discovered that by pouring water quickly back and forth between glasses over a vat, the gas dissolved in the water and "exceedingly pleasant sparkling water" was produced.
In May 1886 in Atlanta, Georgia, John Pemberton invented one of the most iconic beverages of all time, Coca-Cola. Pemberton was a pharmacist and originally wanted to create a medicine.
A new patent-medicine ingredient was popularized, and that ingredient was coca. It was known as "the divine plant of the Incas" and had a very stimulating effect. When chewing a leaf of the plant, tiny amounts of cocaine would be released.
The sale of alcohol was prohibited in July of 1886, forcing Pemberton to produce a nonalcoholic remedy. His drink contained coca and kola and sugar.
Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor in December officially brought America into World War II. When America's troops were sent overseas, Coca-Cola went along with them. Every serviceman was provided with a bottle of Coca-Cola for five cents.
The sugar rationing was put into action, but after a whole bunch of lobbying and numerous letters written to Washington, Coca-Cola was exempt from the rationing because it was considered "essential to the war effort".
Coca-Cola became the official drink of the 1980 Olympic Games, but was boycotted.
Today, carbonated beverages are the most consumed beverages in the US. It accounts for 30% of all liquid consumption in the states and 3% of humanity's total liquid intake globally.