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Transcript of Yellow Fever
-Account from Benjamin Rush describing 1793 epidemic
- "Mosquitoes (the usual attendants of a sickly autumn) were uncommonly numerous."
- Finlay's theory ignored for 20 years
- 1900 U.S. Army Yellow Fever Board arrived in Cuba to test theory at Camp Lazear
- Headed by Walter Reed
-Used human volunteers
- Produced 14 cases
-Lazear, a member of the board, died after being infected By Anna Tultz and Alissa Nivens Yellow Fever - Acute systemic (body wide) viral disease that affects the liver and kidneys
- Vector-borne Flavivirus
- Can affect both male and females, all ages, and all races
- Fatality rate is approx. 20%
- Transmitted by infected female mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti
-3 cycles of transmission Basic Information - Disease predates accurate medical records
- Believed to have originated in West Africa (monkeys)
- The first written account of yellow fever dates back to 1495 in Hispaniola
-First recorded symptoms from Yucatan and Havana in 1648
-New York 1668
-Charleston, SC 1699
--New Orleans: 9,000 killed in 1853
1855: 75 killed
1867: 250 killed
1873: 2,000 killed
1878: 4,000+ killed
- Originally named "Yellow Jack" due to yellow flags flown by infected ships History Changes to Society 13
14 - Endemic in Africa and South America
- 33 countries in Africa (combined population of 468 million)
- 10 countries in South America
- Several Caribbean islands
- Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru are considered at greatest risk
-Estimated 200,000 cases each year with 30,000 deaths (most occurring in sub-Saharan Africa)
-Recommended in 1988 by joint WHO/UNICEF Technical Group that the vaccine be incorporated into the routine infant and child immunization in Africa
- Around 9-12 months of age
- Has yet to spread to Asia
- Very strict quarantine regulations for travelers arriving without valid vaccination certificate Current Locations - No cure for this disease
-First methods of treatment:
- Dr. Benjamin Rush
-miasma and weather
- Reduce pain
- Lower fever
- Careful of pain medication due to
increased bleeding Prevention/Treatment Awareness -Organizations:
CDC: Centers for Disease Control
-Leads Yellow Fever vaccine efforts called Yellow Fever Initiative
Yellow Fever Committee
- Recent Advancements:
- 2010, Tamir Biotechnology announced that scientists supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) “confirmed that testing of three (3) of our company's compounds showed in vitro results rarely seen before by the U.S. government for yellow fever.”
- Three compounds received Selectivity Index (SI) scores of 100, 267, and 287
- Rarely seen SI scores above ten before the results Public Figures Residual Effects - Stricter travel regulations
- Requiring proof of vaccination
- Sanitation standards (elimination of breeding places)
- Mosquito control through chemical use
- In Africa:
- Collapse of health care delivery systems
- Overstrected scarce internal resources
- Fatigued donor assistance Conclusion "Personally, I feel that only can experimentation on human beings serve to clear the field for further effective work." -Walter Reed Cycles of Transmission! Philadelphia epidemic of 1793 -Claimed 4,044
-or 10% of population
-Thomas Jefferson wrote to James Madison
-one of every three stricken
-Nation's capital was stationed in Philadelphia
-Had to be moved! How it spread -Mosquitoes came from West Africa through the slave trade
-African-Americans were more resistant to yellow fever; therefore, increasing the slave trade!!! Methods of Containment -Quarantine
-Hospital in England
-better public sanitation and water supply
-disease was imported
-strict quarantine on water fronts Finding a Vaccine -Max Theiler
-Rockefeller Institute: leading
research center for yellow fever
-Passed virus strand through tissue cultures -Yellow fever is not a major threat in the U.S. today but still plagues many countries in Africa and South America
-If traveling, check to see what vaccines you may need! Pestilence Philip Freneau, Philadelphia, 1973 Hot, dry winds forever blowing,
Dead men to the grave-yards going:
Oh! what plagues-there is no knowing!
Priests retreating from their pulpits!-
Some in hot, and some in cold fits
In bad temper,
Off they scamper
Leaving us-unhappy culprits!
Doctors raving and disputing
Death's pale army still recruiting-
What a pother
One with t'other!
Some a-writing, some a-shooting.
Nature's poisons here collected,
Water, earth, air infected-
O, what pity,
Such a city,
Was in such a place erected! Carlos Juan Finlay Walter Reed - 20,000 people fled Philadelphia
- Port policed to prevent infected ships from docking until after quarantined
-Outlying cities rapidly grew
- Louisiana Purchase
- Napoleon's troops lost 27,000 to yellow fever in 1801
- Resulted in the selling of the Territory to the U.S. Theory and Experimentation - Incubation period is typically three to six days
- Initial symptoms include: fever, chills, severe headache, back pain, general body aches, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and weakness
- 15% of cases develop the more severe form
-High fever, jaundice, bleeding in mouth, eyes, and gastrointestinal tract, shock and failure of multiple organs
- Diagnosis based on blood tests, travel, and activities
- Blood test will detect presence of antibodies and reduced number of white blood cells Symptoms/Diagnosis Dr. Benjamin Rush - -Most respected doctor of the time
-Signed the Declaration of Independence
-Believed yellow fever was local and dealt with miasmas. - 1881, Carlos Juan Finlay from Cuba was the first person to provide experimental evidence that the disease is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes
- Found an account from Benjamin Rush describing the 1793 Philadelphia epidemic
- "Mosquitoes (the usual attendants of a sickly autumn) were uncommonly numerous.”
- Theory ignored for 20 years by the scientific community
- 1900, the U.S. Army Yellow Fever board, headed by Walter Reed, arrived in Cuba and tested Finlay’s theory at Camp Lazear
- Theory tested by allowing human volunteers to be bitten by infected mosquitoes
- Commission members applied infected mosquitoes contained in test tubes to the skin of the volunteers
- The tests produced 14 cases of yellow fever
- Jesse William Lazear, a member of the board, died after being infected by the disease - Vaccine is a live, weakened version of the virus
- Given as a single shot and can be given with most other vaccines
- Valid 10 days after vaccination and remains valid for 10 years
- Certain countries require proof of vaccination to enter
- Receive a signed and stamped "International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis"
-Those that have not been vaccinated can be given vaccine upon entry or quarantined for up to six days
- Health officials also recommend sleeping in screened housing, using mosquito repellents, and wearing clothing that fully covers the body Vaccine/ Other Recommendations -Hamilton
-fled to New York City
-huge role in Memphis Infected Liver Works Cited Frierson, J. Gordon. "Abstract." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 29 Nov. 0005. Web. 24 Sept. 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2892770/>.
Norrby, Erling. "Abstract." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 26 Nov. 2007. Web. 26 Sept. 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2118520/?tool=pubmed>.
Oldstone, Michael B. Viruses, Plagues, and History. New York, New York: Oxford UP, 1998. Print.
"Research News." New Hope in Finding Cure for Yellow Fever / / News / CheckOrphan. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2012. <http://www.checkorphan.org/grid/news/research/new-hope-in-finding-cure-for-yellow-fever>.
Spink, Wesley W. Infectious Diseases. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1978. Print.
"Who Discovered Yellow Fever." Who Discovered Yellow Fever. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2012. <http://www.yellowfeverinfo.com/who-discovered-yellow-fever/>.
"Yellow Fever Cure." Yellow Fever Cure. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2012.
"Yellow Fever Definition - Medical Dictionary Definitions of Popular Medical Terms Easily Defined on MedTerms." Medterms. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2012. <http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=6054>.
"Yellow Fever (jungle Yellow Fever, Urban Yellow Fever)." Yellow Fever (jungle Yellow Fever, Urban Yellow Fever). N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2012. <http://www.health.ny.gov/diseases/communicable/yellow_fever/fact_sheet.htm>.
"Yellow Fever." Netdoctor. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2012. <http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/travel/diseases/yellowfever.htm>. -First and ONLY Nobel Prize for finding vaccine