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Imogen Lewis

on 27 May 2013

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Transcript of Overfishing

Overfishing Overfishing is the removal of seafood from the ocean is occuring at a greater rate than it is being replenished. Every year around 120 million tons of seafood are caught. Thousands of kilometers of oceanic habitats are destroyed by fishing implements and for every kilogram of seafood that goes to market, 10-100kgs are discarded as bycatch.

Scientists say overfishing really started in the mid 20th century due to the increasing demand of protein-rich food which led governments to increase legal fishing quantities.

In 1989, catch numbers began to decline or stagnate. Fishing industries for popular fish have collapsed. In 2003, a study estimated that large fish populations had been reduced to just 10% of their pre-industrial population.

Scientists have deduced that by 2048, all the fish we eat today will be extinct and all fishing industries will have collapsed. Top 10 Fishing Countries to Fish Caught per Year Top 30 Fishing Countries & Their Catch Where does overfishing occur? As seen on FIG 1 and FIG 2, major overfishing occurs in ocean regions (mostly the North Pacific and Atlantic Ocean) close to where the top fishing countries are located because the fish are easily accessible and in bountiful supply. But in reality, overfishing occurs wherever there are fish.

The countries that catch the most fish usually have the largest populations, like China, or they may have climates which make producing other food supplies difficult.

Case Study- Southern Blue Fin Tuna:
Overfishing of this fish occurs in most southern hemisphere waters because this is where it lives. The largest consumers are Japan, USA and China. Since 1950, SBFT populations have gone down 92%. The reason why SBFT is endangered is because most of the fish caught are juveniles and have not reproduced as is a fish which is in demand. Countries with the highest populations usually catch the most fish
The oceanic regions where most fish are caught are usually close to the countries that catch the most fish Key Points FIG 1 (2012) FIG 2 (2012) Current Consequences of Overfishing Economical and Social-
The collapse of fishing industries have put many people out of a job and lost generations of tradition and knowledge.

Many countries that once relied on fishing to fuel their economy, like African and South Asian countries, have lost a vital contribution to their economy. Environmental-
When fish in demand are taken in large numbers from the ocean, their whole ecosystem is disrupted. Large operation fishing unintentionally kills other marine life such as, juvenile fish, ocean floor marine life, turtles, sharks and dolphins with trawlers and nets, and discarding bycatch. Case Study- Southern Bluefin Tuna 9/10 SBFT that are caught are juveniles and have not had the chance to reproduce. This is due to the constant demand for this fish.

SBFT is so rare now, that one recently sold in Japan for 1.8 million dollars.

The SBFT is a 4th order consumer. Due to the decrease of this species, lower order consumers have increased, unbalancing the ecosystem. Future Consequences of Overfishing Economical and Social-
Collapse of all fishing industries (predicted to be by 2048) will put masses of people out of jobs.

Countries that rely on fishing as a major part of their economy, will be affected.

Countries that rely on fish for a major food source, especially developing countries, may face a famine. Some coastal African and South Asian countries rely on seafood as up to 50% of their diet.

After the collapse of fishing industries, illegal fishing will occur. Environmental-
Not only will all exploited fish be extinct, but the rest of the ocean will be heavily affected, as all species rely on each other to keep the ecosystem running. All the large fish will be extinct so the medium fish will thrive, eating all the small fish, which means there is nothing left to eat the small organisms. Resulting in slime excess, which will starve the ocean of oxygen, making it uninhabitable for everything but bacteria. The most simple organism on earth. It would be like reversing evolution.

1 billion people rely on fish as a vital source of protein in their diet. When fish become extinct (due to overfishing) it will cause famine and the over farming of other food sources to fill the gap. Case Study- Southern Bluefin Tuna The SBFT will become extinct within the next 20 years if fishing continues at its current rate. This would not only result in losing a species but as a chain reaction, other species in higher and lower orders on the food chain, would die out due to starvation or become overpopulated due to having no predators and wipe out all of its prey. This pattern would repeat itself down the food chain and severly disturb the ecosystem balance resulting in inevitable catastrophe. Fixing Overfishing- Locally Data This graph and the previous graph, proves that the number of Southern Bluefin Tuna has decreased dramatically This graph proves that number of unexploited species of fish have decrased, fully exploited fish numbers have stayed the same and overexploied fish numbers have increased in a 32 year period. This proves overfishing is a very real issue. This comparison shows that overfishing does not just affect the species being fished. It shows that almost all of the ocean cannot replenish the fish fast enough for the other fish in the sea to eat. This graph shows how many cod were caught in the USA between 1850 and 2000. At the height of the fishing boom, numbers were at 800,000, now numbers are almost at zero. Another map clearly showing the extent of overfishing and how it is rapidly declining fish numbers. Case Study Case Study This line graph shows that it was around 1996-98 when fish and aquaculture (seafood) stocks began to decline. What Can I Do? Be informed- read up about my local situation of overfishing, keeping in mind every situation is different.

Know what I eat- if I ate fish, pick the fish to eat that has the lowest impact.

Spread the word- inform friends, family and class members about the impacts of overfishing

Act- sign petitions, participate in protests, support orgaisations etc.
Thankyou for watching
HELP STOP OVERFISHING! Diagram of the environmental effects of overfishing This pie graph shows that more than half of all fish species are fully exploited. Even more shocking, only three percent are underexploited. This data collected from 1950-2012, proves overfishing is a very real issue. It records the amount/percent of exploited fish, the regions where overfishing occurs and the state of fish stocks. Local-
NSW Government has introduced fishing licenses
Many independent groups have formed to try and stop overfishing
Catch limits are in force to stop fishermen taking too many fish from the ocean
There is a law that fish have to be over a certain size to be taken

There are many websites* dedicated to educating people in NSW about which fish support healthier oceans and take donations to help protect ocean wildlife in danger of extinction.

There is a Greenpeace group in Newcastle which is helping create a more sustainable ocean.

The Pew Charitable Trust is rallying against a proposal to open kilometers of New England waterways to commercial fishing. Fixing Overfishing- Global Scale Global-
The WWF, Greenpeace and other global organisations, all have overfishing as one of their top priorities to solve. Specific strategies have not been decided.
The United Nations is also addressing overfishing by planning to set rules and regulations countries have to abide by in terms of their gross catch.
Some countries (Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean) are planning to farm endangered fish in captivity. All in all, overfishing is not being addressed with the urgency it requires on a local scale, but even more concerning, on a Global one. *
www.gviaustralia.com.au The state of Australia's fish stocks Article on the Overfishing of Sharks Perspective of the Stakeholders Consumer- Asian culture would lose an ancient tradition of making shark fin soup and would most likely not want to give it up. The Chinese would also not be able to make their tradition medicines. Groups/individuals against the overfishing or sharks- believe that if sharks keep being killed, then they will not be able to re-cooperate and become severely endangered and eventually extinct. Fishermen and Industries- some industries would collapse if restrictions were made. This would put many people out of a job and lose millions of dollars for companies. Future strategies/solutions- 1. Ban commercial fishing.
2. Only allow independent fisherman to catch 2 fish per species a day.
3. Developing countries that rely on fish as a major food source would be allowed to fish themselves and would also be given other means of food by the Government.
4. Species of fish that are almost extinct would not be allowed to be fished at all.
5. Ban trawlers completely.
6. Develop other way to boost the economies of countries that rely on fish industries to fuel the economy. These strategies, if adopted, would result in better healthier oceans right across the world and stop the otherwise inevitable end to the ocean Want to learn more?
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