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America's Most Famous Abolitionists
Transcript of America's Most Famous Abolitionists
Chrissa Link & Jamaal Parham & Brent Brown
2nd & 8th pd. Frederick Douglass Growing up Frederick Douglass was a slave after achieving his "freedom" he changed his last name from Bailey to Douglass in fear of being caught and returned to the South. After coming to "Freedom" Frederick sent for his fiancee, Anna Murray. The two were married on September 15, 1838. Frederick was told that in the port of New Bedford, Massachusetts, he would be safe from slave catchers and he could find work as a caulker. After living in New Bedford for only a few months, Douglass was asked if he wanted to subscribe to the Liberator, a newspaper edited by the outspoken leader of the American Anti-Slavery Society, William Lloyd Garrison. Douglass immediately became caught up in the Liberator's attacks on southern slaveholders. William Lloyd Garrison Garrison was a pacifist who believed that only through moral persuasion could slavery end, he attempted through his writings to educate slaveholders about the evils of the system they supported. "On this subject I do not wish to think, or speak, or write with moderation .....Tell a man whose house is on fire to give a moderate alarm; tell him to moderately rescue his wife from the hands of a ravisher.....but urge me not to use moderation in a cause like the present.....I will not retreat a single inch----AND I WILL BE HEARD." - William Lloyd Garrison (a quote from his 1st publishing of the Liberator) "The paper became my meat and drink, My soul was set all on fire." - Frederick Douglass After seeing & hearing Douglass's speech Garrison immediately recognized him as a potential speaker, hiring him to be an agent for the society. Traveling as a lecturer along with other abolitionist agents, his job was to talk about his life and to sell subscriptions to the Liberator and another newspaper, the Anti-Slavery Standard. For most of the next 10 years, Douglass was associated with the Garrisonian school of the antislavery movement. In 1843, Douglass participated in the Hundred Conventions project, the American Anti-Slavery Society's six month tour. Douglass enjoyed his work thoroughly but his job was not an easy one. Even with its down falls Douglass was sure that he had found his purpose in life. In May 1845, 5,000 copies of the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave was published. Almost immediately, Douglass's autobiography became a best seller. However, Douglass's fame as an author threatened his freedom. Federal laws gave Thomas Auld the right to seize his property, the fugitive slave Frederick Baily. Frederick Douglass's freedom cost $710.96, it was sent to Hugh Auld, to which Thomas Auld had transferred the title to Douglass. On December 5, 1846, Hugh Auld signed the papers that decreed the 28 year old Douglass and/or Bailey a free man. At the age of 25, Garrison joined the Abolition movement. He became associated with the American Colonization Society. January 1, 1831, he published the first issue of his own anti-slavery newspaper, the Liberator. Ever so controversial, Garrison made many enemies throughout the country. He believed that the U.S. Constitution upheld slavery, for it stated that nonfree individuals (slaves) should be counted as three-fifths of a person for determining a state's share of the national taxes and its number of seats in the House of Representatives. He called for the Union to be dissolved, demanding that it be split between a free nation in the North and a slavehold confederacy in the South. Garrison was a powerful leader Harriet Tubman Born a slave in Maryland's Dorchester County around 1820. At age five or six, she began to work as a house servant. Seven years later she was sent to work in the fields. One night Tubman blocked a doorway to protect another field hand from an angry overseer. The overseer picked up and threw a two-pound weight at the field hand. It fell short, striking Tubman on the head. She never fully recovered from the blow, which subjected her to spells in which she would fall into a deep sleep. Around 1844 she married a free black named John Tubman and took his last name. In 1849, Tubman resolved to run away. She set out by on foot during the night. She followed the North Star by night, making her way to Pennsylvania and ending in Philadelphia, where she found work and saved her money. The following year she returned to Maryland and escorted her sister and her sister's two children to freedom. She made the dangerous trip back to the South soon after to rescue her brother and two other men. On her third return, she went after her husband, only to find he had taken another wife. Undeterred, she found other slaves seeking freedom and escorted them to the North Tubman returned to the South again and again. She devised techniques that helped make her successful. Tubman even carried a gun which she used to threaten the fugitives if they became too tired or decided to turn back. Her nickname was Moses. "You'll be free or die.- Harriet Tubman" The Definition of Abolitionist Webster defines Abolitionist as some
one who stands for the priciple or measures fostering abolition especially of slavery. Harriet Beecher Stowe John Brown Abraham Lincoln Sojourner Truth Nat Turner Free Soil Party Nat Turner was born in Southampton, Virginia on October 2, 1800. Nat was the property of Benjamin Turner, a prosperous plantation owner. In 1831 Turner was sold to Joseph Travis. August 21st Turner and about seven other slaves killed Travis and his family to launch his rebellion, about 50 whites were killed. Turner had only 75 joined his rebellion. Turner's rebellion led to defeat & innocent slaves dying. After going into hiding 6 weeks later Nat Turner was found & executed on November 11, 1831. "...I must spill the first blood." -Nat Turner Born on June 14, 1811 in Litchfield, Connecticutt. She is the sister of Catherine, Henry, & Edward. After getting married to Calvin Ellis Stowe she began writing a story of slavery, based of her reading of abolitionist & personal observation. In 1851 her story Uncle Tom's Cabin was published in the National Era. With over 300,000 copies sold within the first year, the book help with the pro- and anti-slavery movement. A year after selling the book she published a key to the book filled with testimonies & documents Born into a deeply religious family who opposed slavery. Growing up he felt the need to continue his families views on slavery. For 50 years John spent his life moving around constantly on the account of keeping his dream alive. Fathering 20 children he filed for bankruptcy in his 40's even though he lacked funds he still manage to go on & support his cause on slavery. Helping fugtive slaves achieve land & other abolitionist with appeals & speechs Brown served in anyways he could. "though a white gentleman, [Brown] is in sympathy a black man, and as deeply interested in our cause, as though his own soul had been pierced with the iron of slavery." - (Frederick Douglass) On October 16, 1859, he and 21 other men( 5 blacks and 16 whites) raided the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry. After being wounded Brown was captured put on trial & convicted of treason. John Brown was hanged on December 2, 1859. "I believe to have interfered as I have done, . . . in behalf of His despised poor, was not wrong, but right. Now, if it be deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice, and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children, and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments, I submit: so let it be done." (John Brown's address to the court) The Free Soil Party was formed during the Election of 1848 after Martin Van Buren is passed over by the Democratic Party as their candidate.
The Party had their first meeting in Buffalo, New York in August of 1848.
They stood for
•Opposition to the extension of slavery into the territories
•Support for national internal improvement programs
•Support for moderate tariffs designed for revenue only
•Support for the enactment of a homestead law.
Slogan was “free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men”
Born Feb. 12, 1809, in Hardin County, Kentucky. Growing up with effort made to achieve & obtain knowledge Lincoln became successful in the world of politics In 1860 Lincoln was elected President. January 1, 1863, he issued the Emancipation Proclamation that declared forever free those slaves within the Confederacy.
April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated at Ford's Theatre in Washington by John Wilkes Booth. "that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain--that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom--and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth." -Abraham Lincoln (dedicating the military cemetery at Gettysburg)
Born into slavery in New York. Truth married & 5 children with Thomas. In 1843 she changed her name to what we know Sojourner Truth. Traveling as a preacher she became and abolitionist. During the Civil War Sojourner Truth raised food and clothing contributions for black regiments, and met Abraham Lincoln at the White House in 1864. While there, she tried to challenge the discrimination that segregated street cars by race.
"Bleeged to ye for hearin' on me, and now old Sojourner han't got nothin' more to say." Sojouner Truth "Ain't I a Woman" speech.
The different territories Red- Confederate
Blue- North Free states (orange)
Slave states (red) Harriet Tubman & her fellow fugitive slaves on the UGR. I do not go back to America to sit still, remain quiet, and enjoy ease and comfort. . . . I glory in the conflict, that I may hereafter exult in the victory. I know that victory is certain. I go, turning my back upon the ease, comfort, and respectability which I might maintain even here. . . Still, I will go back, for the sake of my brethren. I go to suffer with them; to toil with them; to endure insult with them; to undergo outrage with them; to lift up my voice in their behalf; to speak and write in their vindication; and struggle in their ranks for the emancipation which shall yet be achieved.
----FAREWELL TO THE BRITISH PEOPLE, March 30, 1847 (Frederick Douglass)
“If the first woman God ever made was strong enough to turn the world upside down all alone, these together ought to be able to turn it back and get it right side up again”-Sojouner Truth “I heard a loud noise in the heavens, and the Spirit was loosened, and Christ had laid down the yoke he had borne for the sins of men, and that I should take it on and fight against the Serpent, for the time was fast approaching when the first should be last and the last should be first.” - (Nat Turner) “So long as the law considers all these human beings, with beating hearts and living affections, only as so many things belonging to the master -- so long as the failure, or misfortune, or imprudence, or death of the kindest owner, may cause them any day to exchange a life of kind protection and indulgence for one of hopeless misery and toil -- so long it is impossible to make anything beautiful or desirable in the best-regulated administration of slavery.” (Harriet Beecher Stowe) “I had reasoned this out in my mind, there was one of two things I had a right to, liberty or death; if I could not have one, I would have the other.” (Harriet Tubman) “I am not bound to win, but I am bound to be true. I am not bound to succeed, but I am bound to live by the light that I have. I must stand with anybody that stands right, and stand with him while he is right, and part with him when he goes wrong.” (Abraham Lincoln) “Every great dream begins with a dreamer. Always remember, you have within you the strength, the patience, and the passion to reach for the stars to change the world.” (Harriet Tubman)
Every abolitionist had their own reasoning for doing the things they did whether it be for fame or for the good of someone else. They had a dream & each one of the left their legacy behind with hopes their dreams would live on long after they were to leave this earth.