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Mental Illnesses STEP Presentation

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Jane Ogagan

on 16 December 2013

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Transcript of Mental Illnesses STEP Presentation

What is Schizophrenia?
a long term mental disorder of a type involving a breakdown in the relation between thought, emotion, and behavior.
Symptoms
Delusions
Hallucinations
Disorganized speech
Disorganized behavior
Lack of emotional expression or Interest
Inappropriate reactions
Infantile behavior
Excited motor skills
Stuporous
Depression
Facts
how many people are affected?
2.1 millions Americans have Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia can be found in approximately 1% in the worlds population
who are affected
Three quarters of people with Schizophrenia develop between ages 16 - 25
The disorder can also run in blood relatives
Recovered
25% recover completely
50% improved over a 10-year period
25% do not improve
schizophrenia affects the neurotransmitter concentrations of dopamine, glutamate and serotonin systems
Parts of the brain affected is the Forebrain, Hindbrain and the Limbic system

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Symptoms
Causes

Treatment
Mental Illnesses
A Prezi Presentation by:
Dementia
Christina Alvear, Tammara Brandon, Kathryn Cedeno, Carla Goodwin, Dan Graham, Jane Ogagan, Javier Stec
Cerebral Palsy
Parkinson's Disease
What is Cerebral Palsy
Facts:
Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that can involve brain and nervous system functions, such as movement, learning, hearing, seeing, and thinking.
Symptoms
· Variations in muscle tone — either too stiff or too floppy
· Stiff muscles and exaggerated reflexes
· Difficulty balancing
· Lack of muscle coordination

Causes
Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) - Lack of oxygen to the brain (Asphyxia)

Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL)- Damage to white matter results in the death and decay of injured cells, leaving empty areas in the brain (a condition called leukomalacia).

EPILEPSY
TREATMENTS
What to do if you witness an Epileptic attack

CAUSES
FACTS
LIVING WITH EPILEPSY
Different Forms
There are several different types of cerebral palsy, including spastic, athetoid, ataxic, rigidity, and tremor.

Treatments
Physical therapy- Specific sets of exercises and activities can maintain or improve muscle strength, balance, and motor skills, and prevent contractures.
Occupational therapy focuses on optimizing upper body function, improving posture, and making the most of a child’s mobility.

Life Expectancy
8 Factors that Affect life Expectancy- Number of impairments and key disabilities, Severity level, Mobility restrictions, Feeding difficulties, Seizures, Cognitive functioning
Visual acuity, Respiratory functioning.

Epilepsy is the third most common neurological disorder in the United States after Alzheimer’s disease and stroke.

Epilepsy is not a single entity but a family of more than 40 syndromes that affect nearly 3 million people in the U. S. and 50,000,000 worldwide.

More prominent in males.

After the age of 55 or 60, the rate of the probability of getting epilepsy increases

The mortality rate among people with epilepsy is two to three times higher than the general population and the risk of sudden death is 24 times greater.

Main symptoms
1.Stiffness
2.Tremors
3. movements
Dementia describes a group of symptoms that affect thinking and social abilities severe enough to interfere with daily life.

Common Symptoms Include:
Memory Loss
Difficulty Communicating
Difficulty with complex tasks, puzzles or motor functions
Personality changes
Paranoia
Hallucinations



Age
Family History
High or Low Blood Pressure
Depression
Diabetes
High Cholesterol
Obesity
Smoking
Alcohol use

Some types of Dementia are caused by brain trauma.
The brain can gradually break down because of other diseases.
It can be genetic
Heavy exposure to lead, arsenic, mercury or manganese

Causes and Risk Factors

Alzheimer’s disease- Progresses slowly. Microtubules cannot function and disintegrate causing nerve cells to die.

Vascular Dementia- Brain damage due to reduced or blocked blood flow to the brain causes the mind to deteriorate quickly

Major Types of Dementia

There is currently no cure for dementia

Cholinesterase Inhibitors and Memantine work by boosting levels of chemical messengers involved in memory, learning and language.

Medical evidence points to mental exercises as an effective therapy to combat or slow down Dementia

Medical Treatments

Epilepsy may develop because of an abnormality in brain wiring, an imbalance of nerve signaling chemicals called neurotransmitters. This could be caused by pressure in the brain due to:
Countries with the Disease

Tumors
Head Trauma
Blood Clots
Problems at birth
Hereditary

Treatment:
1.Palliative and symptomatic
2.Therapeutic
3. Levodopa



ADHD
Effect on the Brain:

Who is Affected?
Ketogenic Diet
Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS)
Surgery: Lesionectomy
Medication: Valproate
An Epileptic attack can happen at any moment but medications and the treatments can make living with Epilepsy easier.
Causes to the body:
In early stages of Parkinson's disease, your face may show little or no expression, or your arms may not swing when you walk. Your speech may become soft or slurred.

Neurotransmitters:
glutamate
Gamm-Aminobutyric acid, GABA
The Greater risk of the disease in Men and Women:
-Parkinson’s disease seems to occur more commonly in men than women based primarily on studies of death rates and prevalence.
- Possible reasons for this increased risk of Parkinson’s disease in men are intoxicant exposure, head trauma, neuroprotection by o estrogen, mitochondrial dysfunction, or X linkage of genetic risk factors.


Neurological disorder which causes convulsions or seizures
CANAVAN DISEASE
Cause
Prognosis
Symptoms
Treatments
Causes
Different brain chemistry and structure. Scientists think that an imbalance in the complex, interrelated chemical reactions of the brain involving the neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate.
genetic mutations on chromosome 17
a mutation to the ASPA gene.
prevent the production of aspartoacylase
hinder the breaking down of an acid known as NAA
catastrophic effects to the normal formation of the white matter within the brain
delay in motor skills
weak muscle tone
unusually large head size
abnormal posture
intellectual disability.
no cure available for canavan disease
aim to mostly ease or manage the symptoms related to the disease.
Patients are likely to become disabled.
Many children often die at a young age
5% of boys and 2% of girls in the U.s
60% continue to show symptoms as an adult
Inattention
Hyperactivity
Impulsivity
difficulty paying attention and completing tasks
inability to sit still and excessive talking
inability to hold back impulsive behavior that may put the person or others in danger
defined by the DSM-IV
*6 months*
Neurotransmitters
Dopamine & norepinephrine
Generic
If one twin has ADHD, there is an 80% chance the other one will as well.
Exposure to toxins
Lead
Alcohol or drug use during pregnancy
Premature Birth
Canavan disease is most common among Eastern European Jews
Generic and Brand Name
Medication
Methylphenidate and Ritalin
The drugs generally increase dopamine levels but have dangerous side effects
Behavior Therapy and Counseling
"I was trying to daydream but my mind kept wandering." -Steven Wright
TEST
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We LOVE you Shim-In!
Key Terms
mental illness-
Any of various conditions characterized by impairment of an individual's normal cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning
DSM-IV
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition; This reference book, published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the diagnostic standard for most mental health professionals in the United States.
neurotransmitter-
A chemical substance, such as acetylcholine or dopamine, that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse (the space in between neurons).
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