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Aristotle's Appeals of Argumentation and Persuasion
Transcript of Aristotle's Appeals of Argumentation and Persuasion
Logos is an appeal to logic, and is a way of persuading an audience by reason.
This advertisement states that alkaline fruits and vegetables help maintain optimum pH levels within the stomach and prevent acidity. By reading this, the audience will think it to be more logical to eat more vegetables and fruits like lettuce and melons to maintain a healthier lifestyle.
This Coca-Cola commercial lists off statistics regarding the terrible future of the world. However, as the commercial narrator says "By that year, 60 percent of all children are likely to have not seen a cow," the footage plays a young boy walking alongside a cow. It persuades viewers that these statistics are untrue by disproving them with images. It shows that, logically, these claims must be untrue because America is more healthier than ever. Which is pretty rich coming from a company that sells diabetes in a bottle.
This 1980's commercial claims that the faceless man portrayed brushing his teeth is a dentist. It persuades viewers to believe that since a dentist (because that guy was totally a dentist) is using an Oral-B toothbrush, it must be the best brand available on the market. The commercial utilizes the credibility of a dental professional to get consumers to buy the product.
Ethos is an appeal to ethics and convinces someone of the credibility of the persuader.
"Some one will say: Yes, Socrates, but cannot you hold your tongue, and then you may go into a foreign city, and no one will interfere with you? Now I have great difficulty in making you understand my answer to this. For if I tell you that to do as you say would be a disobedience to the God, and therefore that I cannot hold my tongue, you will not believe that I am serious; and if I say again that daily to discourse about virtue, and of those other things about which you hear me examining myself and others, is the greatest good of man, and that the unexamined life is not worth living, you are still less likely to believe me."
Socrates, one of the greatest teachers in the history of the Western world, was seen as a threat by the Athenians. He acquired a following among the young men of Athens, teaching these impressionable minds to question everything, even Athenian authority. Eventually, Socrates was arrested and put on trial for corrupting the youth, not believing the gods, and creating new deities. Utilizing his credibility and standing in society, Socrates constructs speech in defense to these charges. He accepts his charges and attempts to persuade the jury with reason. In the end, however, Socrates lost the battle and was sentenced to death.
This commercial uses a well known celebrity to sell a car. He is used because of his prominence in the basketball/sport society and his fame. The use of a celebrity in an advertisement leads people to believe in the claims made by the company and consider following in the steps of the celebrity and purchasing the product/service. Obviously, if a celebrity is using something it must be great--they aren't being paid to read a script, right?
Pathos is an appeal to emotions to affect or persuade.
This commercial tells the audience to "Embrace Life", showing a man who is about to crash be protected by the people he loves. It plays on the viewers heartstrings, telling them that there are people that care about you and want you safe, and to not be so selfish as to take yourself away from them by not wearing a seatbelt. Man, those sparkles are pretty dang cool.
This commercial portrays a child impatiently waiting for Christmas day to come. However, as the commercial begins to draw to an end, viewers are shown that the boy was not waiting for Christmas to arrive because he wanted gifts, but because he wanted to give a present to his parents. The commercial makes the audience go, "aawwww", therefore persuading them to purchase the perfect gift from John Lewis.
“To brush aside America’s responsibility as a leader and -– more profoundly -– our responsibilities to our fellow human beings under such circumstances would have been a betrayal of who we are. Some nations may be able to turn a blind eye to atrocities in other countries. The United States of America is different. And as President, I refused to wait for the images of slaughter and mass graves before taking action.”
The fact that this speech by President Obama was highly criticized does not take away from the emotional tone that is used to present it. In this oration, the President justifies his actions by calling them a responsibility. He states that America must help the less fortunate because not helping them would be a betrayal to our fellow humans. President Obama also mentions that if the U.S. couldn't wait until mass killings occurred to carry out the actions that he did, forcing the American population to see his reasons.
This informational speech by Hans Rosling debunks the myths created about the so-called "developing world". In this talk, he presents facts and statistics that inform the audience about countries they thought they knew about. It utilizes logic to make people see that what the know about the world may not be true, and to embark on a search to learn more about the world they live in.