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Final Copy of: Military Tactics of World War I
Transcript of Final Copy of: Military Tactics of World War I
World War I Firstly: one of the most important aspects: this stinks. I know, right? (extremely prevalent throughout the war, if you haven't figured that out by now...) Bayonets I'm tuff. This is how one
would stab enemies
close raaange! Most bayonet designs were a simple knife,
but there were variations created during WWI.
French devised a needle blade for use on Lebel rifles.
German army produced a 'saw-back' blade. & btw: pixelation is not cool. First used by the Germans in 1914-15
Then adopted by British and French
"The basic idea of a flamethrower is to spread fire by launching burning fuel"
"I will never forget the last Monday for as long as I live. They used liquid fire on us that day, and to tell you the truth, Mother, I cannot tell you how I got away from it. for the fellow who used it, turned it right at me. It shot in my face and over my head and all around me, but it never touched me. Well, it sure made me a good boy. I said my prayers more than once when I was out in No Man's Land." (Personal letters of Sgt. J. C. Morgan.) The Flamethrower A general flamethrower had been around for centuries (since 5th century B.C.!!!), and refined time after time through the years. Then the Germans innovated the one used in WWI at the turn of the 20th century. The purpose of the flamethrower was to flush the enemy out of trenches, and eventually by the end of the war, kill those in tanks. This task came at high stakes though, because even one bullet to the gas tank would cause it to explode. Grenades "In essence a bayonet is simply a blade that is attached to the barrel of a rifle for use in close combat"
Had been around since the 17th century, and contrasted the developing technology of warfare in WWI.
However, was an effectice necessity for close combat, just with restricted opportunity for use.
It was said to have a psychological factor more than practical. Fun fact: the word grenade
probably comes from the french
word pomegranate! Machine Guns Too heavy to be transported in an offensive, so mainly used in defensive strategies. These defensive strategies were mainly on the Western Front when battling France.
Most WWI machine guns were mounted onto tripods and belt fed for maximum fire rate. "...like a thousand rifles firing one after another" (James Clary, Tanks and Armor (New York:Franklin Watts, Inc.,1966))
They required about 4 to 6 men for operation.
There were also lighter, offensive machine guns.
The weapon was eventually developed into use on naval ships and as anti-aircraft weaponry. Pistols Came in numerous varieties, developed before and throught the war.
Were mainly used by personnel of power or in cramped spaces, seemingly opposites. Officers or military policemen used pistols, but they were also necessary where there wasn't sufficient room for a rifle, such as in tanks or airplanes. b u l l e t p o i n t ! The infamous Poison Gas Considered uncivilized prior to WWI
However, it was necessary to overcome the stalemate of trench warfare.
Tear gas was first used by the French then the Germans on a larger scale as an irritant, at the start of the war.
But then... The first poisonous gas, chlorine, was employed by the Germans in 1915.
"Within seconds of inhaling its vapour it destroyed the victim's respiratory organs, bringing on choking attacks"
Next came phosgene, a gas with an effect of choking and coughing until death, but which was delayed about 48 hours after inhalation.
Then, mustard gas, which was odorless and caused internal and external blistering then death, but it also stayed in soil for weeks so enemy trench capturing was more dangerous.
All poisonous gases were used by Germans, then copied by the Allies. Tanks! Big, scary, metal. The gases were first combated with cotton pads dipped in a bicarbonate solution or in emergency soaked in urine, and held over the face to prevent inhaling of the gas. Then the gas was made almost obsolete by the employment of filter respirators ( gas masks) The Rifle Many different types, and innumerable models within those types.
Preceding the war, countries focused greatly on rifle development
However during WWI, the main focus was maintaining the rate of manufacture, and also most concentration was on development elsewhere (mortars, gases, etc...)
Rifles were either single-shot or bolt-action, which made the fire rate mory effective, if controlled.
The rifle's use required training and skill, but ultimately were the easiest weapon to use next to the pistol. omg! can't touch this. Sorry, it was
the burritos. pew pew~! Date back to the 15th century
Used in WWI mainly to kill enemies in trenches and dugouts.
"As with most things at the start of the war in August 1914, the Germans were ahead of the pack in terms of grenade development"
There were hand or rifle launched-, time or impact detonated grenades.
All of the countries developed numerous types and constantly changes them to be more effective. Trench Mortars The most crucial and most abundant infantry weapon. Could be transported, fired, and everything else more efficiently than any other weapon in WWI. Like the grenade, they were ancient weapons, refabricated before WWI
Could be fired from the safety of the trench.
They were fairly light and mobile.
Mortars were used on all sides of the war, but the Germans, once again, had the upper hand. Aircraft! Moving on! A mortar is essentially a short, stumpy tube designed to fire a projectile at a steep angle (by definition higher than 45 degrees) so that it falls straight down on the enemy. I'm not THAT scary. omg mortar liez Then in 1912 they were dropping bombs from an airship.
By 1914 just about every country involved was using aircraft for military means.
From 1914 to 1918, exceptional development of aircraft equalled exceptional production.
Generally, airplanes were becoming able to fly faster, longer, and more easily. They were able to see farther and farther, they were more and more relaible, and equipped more and more advanced weaponry.
They were even included heavily in naval warfare, as well as air warfare, in which fighter planes were involved in destroying eachother.
"by the end of the war both sides were integrating aircraft as a key part of their planned strategies" so scary At the start of the war, aircraft technology was a decade old.
Airplanes first played a role of examining the front for useful information about the enemy.
The next step was their employment as transport to the fronts. The quickest means of mobilization.
The Italians, in 1911, were the first to use the airplane as a means of combat. They dropped grenades from a mono-plane. Counter productive, no? fancy~ hi. boom, headshot They were effectively used preceding infantry attack, as in offensively.
Later, they were used in "creeping barrages," heavy artillery fire was applied directly in front of charging enemy infantry.
The fire slowly creeped along with the moving of the opposing offensive.
This defensive strategy was highly effective, especially towards the beginning of the war when infantry close combat was the most common.
"Suddenly it howls and flashes terrifically, the dug-out cracks in all its joints under a direct hit, fortunately only a light one that the concrete blocks are able to withstand. it rings metallically, the walls reel. Rifles, helmets, earth, mud, and dust fly everywhere. Sulphur fumes pour in." (Ibid., 109-110) so pro. Artillery Artillery were large, transportable, cannon-like weapons that required multiple men in order to project large rounds upon enemy grounds. Offensives & Denfensives Offensives were military strategies that involved a forward advancement of troops pushing opposing forces back.
Offensives, consequently, required a force to counter a defensive. This meant they were going in to the front in the territory held by the enemy.
So, offensives often involved trench raiding, in which the attacking country's army would force the enemy backwards, out of the trenches and forts the employed for cover.
These are where flamethrowers, mortars, gases, etc. came into play (not really play, but war). Defensives were, obviously, attempts to hold one's ground, or the army's position on the front.
Defensives were countered by offensives, so they were designed more as protective strategies.
Although, some defensives did involve counter-offensives, in which the defending military would attack the offensive military in order to weaken their advancing efforts.
Defensives heavily involved weapons such as muchine guns, assault rifles, artilery (creeping barrages), etc. to destroy waves of enemy soldiers that were attacking. Ministry of War, February 21, 1915
Remarks concerning shells with stupefying gases:
The so-called shells with stupefying gases that are being manufactured by our central factories contain a fluid which streams forth after the explosion, in the form of vapours that irritate the eyes, nose, and throat.
There are two kinds: hand grenades and cartridges.
Hand Grenades. The grenades have the form of an egg; their diameter in the middle is six centimetres, their height twelve centimetres, their weight 400 grams. They are intended for short distances, and have an appliance for throwing by hand. They are equipped with an inscription giving directions for use. They are lighted with a small bit of material for friction pasted on the directions, after which they must be thrown away. The explosion follows seven seconds after lighting. A small cover of brass and a top screwed on protect the lighted matter. Their purpose is to make untenable the surroundings of the place where they burst. Their effect is often considerably impaired by a strong rising wind.
Cartridges. The cartridges have a cylindrical form. Their diameter is twenty-eight millimetres, their height ten centimetres, their weight 200 grams. They are intended for use at longer distances than can be negotiated with the hand grenades. With an angle of twenty-five degrees at departure, they will carry 230 metres. They have central lighting facilities and are fired with ignition bullet guns. The powder lights a little internal ignition mass by means of which the cartridges are caused to explode five seconds after leaving the rifle. The cartridges have the same purpose as the hand grenades but because of their very small amount of fluid they must be fired in great numbers at the same time.
Precautionary measures to be observed in attacks on trenches into which shells with asphyxiating gases have been thrown:- The vapours spread by means of the shells with asphyxiating gases are not deadly, at least when small quantities are used and their effect is only momentary. The duration of the effect depends upon the atmospheric conditions.
It is advisable therefore to attack the trenches into which such hand grenades have been thrown and which the enemy has nevertheless not evacuated before the vapours are completely dissipated. The attacking troops, moreover, must wear protective goggles and in addition be instructed that the unpleasant sensations in nose and throat are not dangerous and involve no lasting disturbance. Source: Source Records of the Great War, Vol. III, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923 As presented by: Charlie Peter &Charles Warning: Side effects may occur, including, but not limited to:
dizziness, an increase in intelligence, and and a new-found love of history. Trench Warfare! Defined as: a tactic in which soldiers dig passages in the ground to take shelter from assaults from opposing armies. Reinforced with barbed wire,
sandbags, and deep dugouts. yay4history~ wwi so scary. D: btw: special thanks to Ms.Koehler for introducing us to Prezi! :D Tanks were originally brought about to end stalemates created by trench warfare.
Could easily run over barbed wire.
Withstood machine gun fire.
Affected the enemy physiologically.
"Now that awesome roar was all around them and dark, ghostly shapes semmed to be moving thorugh the foggy mantle shrouding the ground. Then suddenly, huge, terrible, dark monsters, spouting flame and smoke, were upon them. . . into cratered ruins draped with mangled bodies of German soldiers." (Ibid., 28) produced by: © Peter = His majesty, Peter IV the Terrible Charlie = admiral tark, Charles = *cough cough* Coffin ROFL^ mao^ ^ NOTE: No Mao Zedongs, only feelings were hurt in the making of this Prezi.