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Transcript of Photosynthesis
stroma of the chloroplast. Calvin cycle In the Calvin cycle, carbon enters in the form of carbon dioxide and leaves in the form of sugar or in this case G3P. The Cuticle a protective waxy covering produced only by the epidermal cells of leaves, which tends to be thicker on the top than the bottom of the leaf Palisade Mesophyll Cells a Light Reactions contain many more chloroplasts than the spongy layer. These cylindrical cells tend to be in one to five rows which, can take optimal advantage of light. The slight separation of the cells provides the most carbon dioxide to be absorbed; however, this separation is small to allow capillary action for water distribution. In order to adapt to their different environment, plants have created this structure. Leaves in the sun have a multi-palisade layer, while shaded\older leaves or leaves closer to the soil are single-layered. Light reactions: The stoma allows gas, such as Carbon Dioxide, to enter the leaf. Photosynthesis then can occur in the chloroplasts of the leaf. The products of this process are Oxygen and Glucose. Oxygen exits through the stomata and Glucose is transported throughout the rest of the plant to give it energy. The Stoma Capture the energy of light and use it to make the energy-storage molecules ATP and NADPH. The Xylem Water and minerals enter the roots of a plant and travel to the leaves through the Xylem by using transpiration. The Phloem The Vein Sugar, produced by photosynthesis, is transported to the rest of the plant via the phloem The Two Phases Light Reactions These are light-dependent and convert solar energy into chemical energy. The Calvin Cycle This is light-independent and uses the chemical energy to convert CO2 into sugar. Works Cited Involve light energy striking chlorophyll and exciting one of its electrons The Light Dependent Reaction Chlorophyll The green pigment stored in the chloroplast that collects light energy. As it reflects green and yellow light, it absorbs violet, red and blue light. Leaf Structure Light-independent reaction The Calvin cycle is a light-independent
reaction that uses ATP and NADPH to
convert carbon dioxide and water into
organic compounds. Much sunlight can enter a leaf because it is flat, giving it a high surface area. The stomata are most often found on the underside of leaves so that its water will not evaporate. Palisade mesophyll is tightly packed together near the upper epidermis while spongy mesophyll is loosely packed near the lower epidermis. This cycle uses ATP as an energy source and takes in NADPH as reducing power for adding high energy eletrons to make sugar. In order to net one molecule of G3P, the Calvin cycle must go through three rotations and must fix three molecules of carbon dioxide. These reactions take place in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast which offer a large surface area to absorb sunlight. Three Types of Plants C3 plants C4 plants CAM plants Carter, J. (2009, November 2). Biology at clermont college. Retrieved from http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Courses/Bio104/photosyn.htm
Estrella mountain. (2007, May 18). Retrieved from http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookps.html
Ira, F. (2010, Feb 08). Arizona state university. Retrieved from http://photoscience.la.asu.edu/photosyn/education/learn.html They are called this because the first organic product of carbon fixation is a three-carbon compound. Ja, ich hab' keine ahnung, warum ich hier bin.
Fritz ist mein Lieblingschuler. hallo Herr K. Ich heisse Noel. Ich bin eifersuchtig von Fritz. Er ist der Hammer und hat ein superdooper neuer sport wagen und ist so klug/ schoen. They are called this because the first product of carbon fixation is a four-carbon compound. They are called this because of the mode of carbon fixation called, crassulacean acid metabolism. Require H2O and light. Release O2. Photosystem Consists of a reaction center surrounded by a light-harvesting complex. C3 Plants Examples of C3 plants: Rice, wheat, and soy beans Reactants and Products: CO2 + RuBP → 2 3-phosphoglycerate When their stoma partially closes on hot, dry days,
they produce less sugar because the declining level in the leaf starves the Calvin cycle. Photorespiration As carbon dioxide levels become scarce within the air space of the leaf, an enzyme called rubisco adds oxygen to the Calvin cycle instead of carbon dioxide. A photon of light enters photosystem II (PSII) and excites the electron on a pigment molecule. As the electron falls back to ground state, another pigment's electron is excited. This continues until it reaches P680. The product splits, and a two-carbon compound leaves the chloroplast. Peroxisomes and mitochondria split this compound, releasing carbon dioxide. This process is called photorespiration because it ocurrs in the light, consumes oxygen, and produces carbon dioxide. Photorespiration can occur when carbon dioxide levels are low, for example, when the stomata are closed to prevent water loss during a drought. Next it goes to the primary electron acceptor. Water is then oxidized, producing O2. There is next an electron transport chain leading to PSI and generating ATP.
At PSI, electrons are transferred to P700, and what follows is another electron transport chain. This produces NADPH. C4 Plant The structure and biochemical functions of the leaves of C4 plants are an evolutionary adaptation to hot, dry climates. This adaptation maintains a carbon dioxide concentration in the bundle sheath that favors photosynthesis over photorespiration. Examples of C4 plants: Sugarcane, corn, and members of the grass family CEM Plants A photsynthetic adaptation to arid conditions. These plants open their stomata during the night and close them during the day Closing the stomata during the day helps desert plants conserve water, but it also prevents carbon dioxide from entering the leaves. During the night, when their stomata are open, these plants take up carbon dioxide and and incorporates it into many organic compounds. Examples of CEM plants: Many cacti, pineapples, and plants that store water