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02.03 The Crusades: Assessment flvs
Transcript of 02.03 The Crusades: Assessment flvs
The Children's Crusade
According to popular accounts, the Children's Crusade rose as a result of two young visionaries. Nicholas and Stephen each claimed to have received a message from God to continue the fight to retake Jerusalem for the Christians. Both children were around 12 years old and began spreading their message and gathering followers from France and Germany. Their groups eventually numbered in the thousands but were mostly peasants. Estimates suggest that each child may have gathered as many as 30,000 people to his cause.
What historians learned
Historians learned about history of the Crusades from many different sources, including accounts and visual artifacts. One important source of information about the Crusades was the author, cleric, and scholar known as William of Tyre. During his years he wrote
The History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea and The History of Jerusalem.
The Crusades contributed to the construction of many European castles and gave more power to the Church. The Crusades also contributed to opening up trade. Christian pilgrimage routes were reopened, and the use of coin currency increased. They also caused Europeans to develop an increased interest in the spice trade and East Asia.
The Effects of the Crusades
The effects of the Crusades on the Middle Ages were an important factor in the history of civilization. The effects of the Crusades influenced the wealth and power of the Catholic Church, Political matters, commerce, feudalism, intellectual development, social effects and the effects of the crusades also prompted the famous Voyages of discovery.
The crusaders came from both the Upper and Lower classes. Which means it helped
to untie people.
By: Michael C Isajiw
Palestine has a complicated history. Palestine sits near the birthplace of some of the world’s oldest civilizations. It also borders the Mediterranean Sea, a major trade route. The region is valued very much for its location as for its religious history. The location itself may have been reason enough for people to settle there. In turn, those people developed civilizations that gave rise to the religions that have spent centuries competing for the sacred soil.
The First Crusade, 1096-1099
The first Crusaders was led by Godfrey and other French lords. They marched from Constantinople through lands held by the Seljuk Turks to Antioch. Along the way, they battled Turkic forces, and Geoffrey’s brother Baldwin stopped to set up the first Crusader State at Edessa.
Disagreements over the rule of Antioch slowed their progress and split their forces, and it was not until August 1098 that the Crusaders reached Jerusalem. By then, Jerusalem had come again under the rule of Muslim Arabs known as the Fatimid s. The Crusaders laid siege to Jerusalem for more than a month before its keepers surrendered.
In the 10th century Christian pilgrims from Europe had been making the long, dangerous journey to the Holy Land. There, they visited the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Under early Islamic empires, Christians were allowed to make this pilgrimage. Then, in the early 11th century, the Seljuk Turks conquered the Holy Land. The Seljuk Turks closed the pilgrimage routes and attacked Christian pilgrims.
In 1095, Emperor Alexius I Comnenus appealed to Pope Urban II for help in defending the Byzantine Empire.The pope saw an opportunity. He called together the Council of Clermont in France. Eager to secure his own power over the church and to unite the quarrelsome lords of Europe, he called for a military expedition to retake the Holy Land from the Turks.
In the 12th century, Saladin rose to lead the Seljuks and succeeded in uniting the broke down the Muslim armies of S.W. Asia and North Africa. To Saladin, the Christian armies were the infidels who had to die. When Saladin’s forces took Jerusalem, the call went out across Europe to start another crusade. Three kings came Emperor Frederick , King Phillip II , and King Richard I. However, this crusade achieved little. Frederick Barbarossa died along the way, and Phillip returned to Europe after the capture of Acre in 1191. Richard the Lion heart remained to lead the Christian armies. Richard led many campaigns against Jerusalem and struck up a curious relationship with his foe. However, he failed to retake the city. So in 1192, Richard and Saladin reached a truce. According to this peace treaty, Saladin’s Muslim empire kept control of Jerusalem but granted Christians the right to visit the city and their shrines.
The Third Crusade, 1187-1192
Even though Europe lost control of the Holy Land, the Crusades benefited Europe in a many of ways. For example, the exchange that occurred during the Crusades facilitated the spread of Islamic math and science. This helped Europeans to improve their navigation techniques. They also helped to usher in Europe’s Age of Exploration.