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History of Nursing Theories: The 1950's
Transcript of History of Nursing Theories: The 1950's
"Between 1945-1960 the GNP more than doubled, growing from $200 billion to over $500 billion. Much of this came from increased government spending. New technologies such as computers contributed to the decades economic growth. Unemployment and inflation were low and wages were high. The middle-class had more money to spend than ever before and due to the variety and availability of consumer goods, they also had more things to buy" (History website, 2010, para. 3).
Nursing Theorist: Virginia Henderson
Virginia Henderson is a well known nursing educator and a prolific author (McEwen and Wills, p.136) She is a theorist known for the principles and practice of nursing, she developed 14 components to the practice of nursing to help her patients get well and be able to care for themselves in daily living.
Virginia Henderson’s definition of nursing was:
"The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge. And to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible"(Acebuche et al., 2009) . This is what she called her concept.
Theorist impact on nursing today
Global Background of the 1950's
1950: N. Korea invades S. Korea. Korean "Conflict" begins with U.S. involvement. Post-war baby boom dramatically increased birth rate in many countries. The 1st credit card (Diners Club card) accepted at retail stores.
1951: 22nd Amendment passed limiting the President of the U.S. to 2 terms. FDR after being elected to his 4th term perishes. UNIVAC the 1st commercial computer is introduced. Electric power is produced from the 1st atomic power reactor. U.S. tests nuclear weapons throughout the 1950's.
1952: D. Eisenhower is President. King George VI of England dies and is succeeded by his daughter Queen Elizabeth II. Japan regains independence after American occupation ends and the 2 countries become allies. Israel and Germany agree on restitution for damages done to the Jews by the Nazis during WWII.
1953: Korean War ends. Soviet Union detonates 1st Hydrogen bomb. J. Stalin dies and is replaced by Nikita Khruschev to rule the Soviet Union. Cigarette smoking is reported to cause cancer for the 1st time. Crick and Watson publish the famous paper on the double-helix structure DNA.
1954: Brown v. Board of Education decision of "separate but equal" school systems deemed unconstitutional and desegregation of schools instituted. N. and S. Vietnam divided at the 17th parallel. The first human trials of oral contraceptives for women tested. U.S. launches 1st nuclear powered submarine.
1955: Rosa Parks arrested after refusing to give up her seat on the bus, this leads to bus boycott led by Martin Luther King Jr. and sets American civil rights movement in motion.
(Living History Farm website, 2007)
Social Background of the 1950's
"A growing group of Americans spoke out against inequality during the 1950's. African-Americans had been fighting against racial discrimination for centuries; during the 1950s, however the struggle against racism and segregation entered the mainstream of American life (ex: Brown v. The Board of Education). The arrest of Rosa Parks gave way to a 13 month boycott of public transportation namely city buses by black citizens, which only ended when the bus companies stopped discriminating against the African-American passengers. This act led way to future non-violent civil rights movements to come in the next decade" (History website, 2010).
Historical Background of the 1950's
The 1950's was a time period when the civil rights movement and the crusade against communism at home and abroad was at the forefront of the American people.
It was a time of the "boom" era: there was a booming economy, booming suburbs, and most of all the time of the "baby boom". After WWII Americans believed that the future had nothing but peace and prosperity to offer.
The gross national product more than doubled due to increased government spending on construction of highways and schools and on increased military spending. This contributed to this decades' economic growth. Unemployment and inflation rates were low and wages were high which gave the middle class more money to spend.
Women returned to work at home while the men were reinstated as the "bread-winners", this led to dissatisfaction of some women who wanted a more fulfilling life. This in turn led to the feminist movement of the 1960's.
African-Americans struggle for freedom from racism and segregation entered the mainstream of American life.
The Cold War between the Soviet Union and United States continues until 1991.
(History website, 2010)
History of Nursing Theories: The 1950's
Christine Eyster &
Global Background of the 1950's
1956: Soviet troops invade Hungary. The 2nd Arab-Israeli war is fought. Pakistan becomes an Islamic republic. Elvis Presley releases the first of many hit songs.
1957: Soviet Union launches Sputnik satellite and they test their first Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM). N. Vietnam begins a guerilla war with S. Vietnam. In the U.S. the baby boom peaks with 4.3 million Americans born. British allows women to become members of the House of Lords for the first time.
1958: U.S. and Canada develop NORAD. Fidel Castro launches a revolution against the Batista government, forming the first communist regime in the Western Hemisphere, and Castro becomes the premier of Cuba in 1959. The Common Market is begun to give Europe the same economic leverages as the U.S. and Soviet Union. Iraq's King Faisal is assassinated and becomes a republic which allies itself with the Soviet Union. NASA is founded and starts the Mercury Project.
1959: Alaska and Hawaii become the 49th and 50th states. Yasser Arafat establishes militant Arab group dedicated to building a Palestinian state and the destruction of Israel. American Airlines launches the jet age with the 1st transcontinental flights with Boeing 707. Soviet Union's unmanned Luna 2 rocket reaches the moon. U.S. launches into space. Sabin develops live-virus oral polio vaccine that offers longer immunity than Salk vaccine.
(Living History Farm website, 2007)
Cultural Background of the 1950's
After WW II the cultural norm had returned, men were back to being the bread winners and women now assumed the homemaker role. "Television contributed to the homogenizing trend by providing young and old with a shared experience reflecting accepted social patterns" (Country Studies website, n.d., para 1).
In the world of the arts there were many that rebelled against the cultural norm. Many writers, members of the so-called "beat generation," defied conventional values. Singer Elvis Presley popularized black music in the form of rock and roll, and shocked more serious Americans with his duck-tail haircut and undulating hips.
(Country Studies website, n.d.)
One of her long list of contributions, Henderson's well known definition of nursing which calls for the nurse to be an expert and an independent practitioner being equipped with the right knowledge in basic nursing care to achieve its goal’s definition. (Acebuche, et al, 2009). Henderson’s definition along with her 14 basic needs brought great changes to the nursing profession. It has made advancement possible in teaching nursing interventions associated to specific disease diagnosis.
"Hildegard Peplau, the 'mother of psychiatric nursing,' was a true pioneer in the development of the theory and practice of psychiatric and mental health nursing. Her achievements, including her revolutionary work in patient-nurse relationships, are valued by nurses around the world and her ideas have been incorporated into virtually every nursing specialty and into the practices of other health care professionals. Peplau introduced the 'nurse-patient relationship' idea 40 years ago, a time when patients did not actively participate in their own care" (American Nurses Association website, n.d., para. 1).
Virginia Henderson (continued)
Henderson wrote that the nurses function is to assist patients in activities of daily living, especially those patients that are incapable of doing so because of a debilitating condition. The devotion of the nurses in actual practice, or task performance is with a goal of promoting clients to become more independent to perform their daily basic needs independently.
A nurses job according to Henderson is in the event a patient lacks the strength and knowledge, a nurse will act as a temporary proxy in helping them meet their needs that neither the client nor the family can provide.
(Acebuche et al., 2009)
Nursing Theorist: Hildegard Peplau
Hildegard Peplau was a psychiatric nurse in the first half of the 20th century, her graduate education focused on psychology. "Until the 1950's, nursing practice was principally derived from social, biologic, and medical theories, with the exception of Nightingales work in the 1850's. Nursing theory began with the publication of Peplau's book in 1952 in which she described the interpersonal process between nurse and client" (McEwen & Wills, 2014, p. 30). Her nursing theory developed based on Sullivan's theory of Interpersonal theory of psychiatry. From Sullivan's concept of degree of anxiety, Peplau described four levels of anxiety to include mild, moderate, severe, and panic, these are the standards that are used today by nurses to assess anxiety levels in patients. She believed that "nurses play an important role in reducing a patients anxiety level and that the nurses role is to help decrease anxiety and insecurity and improve functioning through interpersonal relationships" (McEwen & Wills, 2014, p. 312). Peplau believed that only through interaction with the patient with empathy, respect, and acceptance could therapeutic milieu be achieved. "Her conceptualization and delineation of the process of the interaction between nurse and patient is one of her major contributions to the profession" (Gregg, 1999, p. 10).
Hildegard Peplau (continued)
Peplau believed that interpersonal relationships were relevant to healthcare and she found that interactions between health care workers and patients had a positive impact on their outcomes. "Interpersonal aspects of care giving and the importance of understanding human needs such as their frustrations, dreams, and possibilities are of vital importance in healthcare according to Peplau, she believed that unconscious conflicts can have a negative effect on a patients state of health and the caregivers provision of adequate interventions" (Nystrom, 2007, p. 283). When Peplau introduced her interpersonal relation model, she borrowed her theoretical assumptions from another discipline, after Peplau, several nurse theorists used her theory as inspiration to guide future nursing theory development (Nystrom, 2007).
Theories in practice today
We use Henderson’s theory in our everyday nursing care. We insure the patients basic needs are met daily, we implement the nursing process, come up with a plan of care and develop an effective plan for the patient to improve his/her medical condition.
As nurses we focus on assisting the patient when they need strength, will or knowledge in performing their daily activities and in carrying out prescribed therapy with the ultimate goal of independence.
Peplau's interpersonal relations model is used on a daily basis by all nurses without even thinking about it. We start developing a relationship with our patients the moment that we assume care. Basic questions are asked that leads us into knowing more about them and starts forming the therapeutic relationship. There is usually no thought put into this process, it comes naturally. We are caring for our patients as we are taught, which includes developing these skills that we have already learned in nursing school. Without this interaction recovery of these patients will be hindered.
The theorists discussed in this presentation made major contributions that are still used today and will continue to be used in the future. These seem to be the basics that we as nurses perform on a daily basis without any extra thought, it just comes naturally, or it just may be ingrained in us during nursing school that it seems to come naturally, regardless, these skills that have developed by following these theorists will continue to allow us to provide exceptional care to our patients whether it is in helping them meet their basic needs or just talking with them and maybe finding out what could be some hindrances preventing their recovery. Whatever the case we are there to meet these needs to guide them on the road to healing and with these theorists guiding our care we can make greater strides in helping them help themselves.
Acebuche, M., Agtagma, D. M., Albiso, M. A., Ang, R. J., Batingana, A. J., & Baylosis, C. (2009, July 14). Application of Henderson’s work [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://nursinghenderson2009.blogspot.com/2009/07/application-of-hendersons-work_14.html
American Nurses Association website. (n.d.). http://www.nursingworld.org/HildegardPeplau
Country Studies website. (n.d.). http://www.countrystudies.us/united-states/history-117.htm
Gregg, D. E. (1999, July). Hildegard E. Peplau: Her contributions. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 35(3), 10-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6163.1999.tb00580.x
History website. (2010). http://www.history.com/topics/1950s
Living History Farm website. (2007). http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe50s/worldevents_01.html
McEwen, M., & Wills, E. M. (2014). Theoretical basis for nursing (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Nystrom, M. (2007, June). A patient-oriented perspective in existential issues: A theoretical argument for applying Peplau’s interpersonal relation model in healthcare science and practice. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 21(2), 282-288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6712.2007.00467.x