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The Fourth Step in the Writing Process

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by

John Hsiao

on 20 August 2013

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Transcript of The Fourth Step in the Writing Process

The Fourth Step in Essay Writing
Revising Sentences
Using Parallelism
Use a Consistent Point of View
Use Specific Words
Use Concise Words
Vary Your Sentences
Use Active Verbs
Hints about Editing
> By balancing the items in a pair or a series so that they have the same kind of structure, you will make the sentence clearer and easier to read.
> Consistency with Verbs
> When aiming to be an effective writer, use specific words, rather than general words, to give the readers a clear and visual sense of what they are reading.
When the subject of a sentence receives the action of a verb, the verb is in the
passive voice
.

When the subject of a sentence performs the action of the verb, the is in the
active voice
.
Wordiness is often a sign of lazy or careless writing.

To avoid this make sure your writing is direct and concise.
Another part of effective writing is to vary the sentences you write.

If every sentence follows the same pattern, writing may become monotonous to read.
Example
Nonparallel
The game-show contestant was told to be
cheerful
,
charming
, and
with enthusiasm
.
Parallel
The game-show contestant was told to be
cheerful
,
charming
, and
enthusiastic
.
(
Not Balanced
)
(
Balanced
)
> Consistency with Pronouns
Do not change verb tenses unnecessarily.
This means if you begin your essay in present tense, do not shift to past tense without reason.
Example
Inconsistent
The cop
pulled
over the speeding driver,
told
the driver he was driving above the speed limit, then
gives
him a ticket.
Consistent
The cop
pulls
over the speeding driver,
tells
the driver he was driving above the speed limit, then
gives
him a ticket.
When writing a paper, you should not change your point of view.
This means if you start your paper in first person or third person, do not suddenly change to second person.
Example
Inconsistent
Consistent
I
prefer cellphones over landlines because

you
can give and receive calls away from home.
I
prefer cellphones over landlines because
I

can give and receive calls away from home.
Example
The
plane
landed at the
airport
.
General
Specific
The
United Airlines 747
landed at
Reagan National Airport
.
Four different rules to follow to avoid being to vague or general.
1)
Use exact names
2)
Use lively verbs
3)
Use descriptive words
(
modifiers
)
before nouns
4)
Use word that relate to the senses
-
sight
,
hearing
,
taste
,
smell
,
and touch
Example
Passive
The old building was
demolished by the construction workers
.
Active
The construction workers demolished
the old building.
Example
Wordy Sentence
Non-wordy Sentence
In this paper, I am planning to describe the hobby that
I enjoy of collecting old comic books.
I enjoy collecting old comic books.
simple and clear
( )
Revising Sentence
Revising Sentences
Revising Sentences
Revising Sentences
Revising Sentences
Four ways to vary your sentences
> Add a second complete thought (coordination).
>
Compound sentences
are sentences with two complete sentences that are usually connected by a comma and a joining or coordinating word
(and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet).

>
A
compound sentence
is used to give equal weight to two closely related ideas.
Example
The sky was clear and sunny
, so
Ali brought sunblock to the beach.
>Add a dependent thought (subordination).
>
Complex sentences
are sentences that contain a dependent thought connected to a simple sentence with a
subordinating word
.

>
A
complex sentence
is used to emphasize one idea over another
.
Subordinating Words
after
,
although
,
as
,
because
,
before
,
even though
,
how
,
if
,
even if
,
in order that
,
since
,
that
,
so that
,
unless
,
until
,
what
,
whatever
,
when
,
where
,
whether
,
which
,
while
,
who
,
whose
Example
When

Miguel was caught in a heavy traffic jam
,
he missed his job interview
.
> Begin with a special opening word or phase.
The special openers that can be used to start sentences are

-ed words
,
-ing words
,
-ly words
,
to
word groups
,
and

propositional phrases
.
-ed word
-ing word
-ly word
to
word group
Prepositional phrase
Denying
the low offer, the man refuses to sell his car.
Concerned
about his son's fever, the father called a doctor.
Quickly
, the runners launched off the starting line.
To
stop
the dogs from getting out, Sherry closed the gate behind her.
During
the exam,

drops of water fell from the ceiling.
> Place adjectives or verbs in a series.
Adjectives

and

verbs

can give the reader's visual images of the subjects they read about.
Example
Adjectives
Verbs
I gently applied a
sticky new
Band-Aid to the

deep, ragged

cut on my finger.
The truck
bounced
off a guardrail,
sideswiped
a tree, and
plunged
down the embankment.
Editing Sentences
Proofreading
1)
Have a good dictionary and a grammar handbook
.
2)
Use a sheet of paper to cover your essay so that you will expose only one sentence at a time
.
Look for errors in grammar
,
spelling
,
and typing
.

It may help to read each sentence out loud
.

If a sentence does not read clearly and smoothly
,

chances are something is wrong
.
3)
Pay attention to kinds of errors you tend to make
.
4)
Try to work on a type-written or word
-
processed draft
,
where you can see errors clearly
,
as opposed to a hand
-
written paper
.
While correcting
,
use a colored pen so the corrections stand out
.
Proofreading
means closely checking the final
,
edited draft of your paper for typos and other careless errors
.
Here are some proofreading symbols that are commonly used
:
insert missing letter or word
acheve
omit
reverse order of words or letters
lived happily after ever
drive one one mile
add space
allright
close up space
basket ball
add a capital (or lowercase) letter
my english Class
Proofing Symbols
Meaning
Example
Things to remember when editing:
Write complete sentences rather than fragments.
Do not write run-on sentences.
Use verb forms correctly.
Make sure that subject, verbs, and pronouns agree.
Eliminate flashy modifiers.
Use pronoun forms correctly.
Use capital letters when needed.
Use all marks of punctuation correctly.
Use proper manuscript form.
Eliminate slang, cliches, and pretentious words.
Eliminate careless errors.
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