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Transcript of history
Nicholas II left for the front to take personal charge of troops and left the country to Alexandria (the Tsarina) who handed over the government to Rasputin.
Rasputin was a semi-mad monk who neither cared about the country nor knew anything about governing it.
Russia's war statistics:
1) Mobilized 15.5 million
2) Deaths were 1.65 million men
3) Wounded 3.85 million men
4) POW 2.41 million men March 1917: The First Revolution Initially there had been increasing strikes and wide spread food shortages March 10: In Petrograd, women waiting in bread lines joined 200,000 strikers calling for the overthrow of the Tsar. March 12: troops who were sent out to quell the protesters shot their own commander and joined the protesters. More and more soldiers joined the strikers and began to hunt down Tsarist police. When Nicholas II heard about the riot in the front, he replied:" Nonsense, I shall not even reply. "The revolutionaries controlled Petrograd by the end of the day... March 14: Moscow had fallen. The Tsar abdicated and was placed under house arrest in a cottage near Moscow. March 16: The Soviet and the Duma formed a Provisional Government Soviet: Organized Marxist revolutionary workers/ a council. provisional Government promised two things: 1) A constituent Assembly with universal
2) To legalize strikes Significance:
1) Tsar was abdicated!
2) Provisional government is formed! Russian workers marching through the streets during the Russian Revolution. Power Struggle Liberals: thought the revolution had gone far enough and wanted to consolidate their gains. Marxists: thought it had not gone far enough and the fight should go on until the dictatorship of the proletariat could be set up. Russia Provisional Government Problems With The Provisional Government: 1)It didn't realize the famine that was continuously happening, also the peasants were in a bad condition because they were landless and without food. 2)The democratic leaders in government felt they were illegitimate because they had not been elected, so they were aware of the problems, but unable to address them. 3)Provisional government completely misunderstood the Russian people, because they thought the masses would be renewed for battle against Germany when the people were not wanting to go in to war at all. Significance:
Forming of the Provisional Government temporarily settle the masses. April 1917: April Thesis Key player: Vladimir Lenin Lenin had been in exile for his revolutionary ideas. The Germans smuggled him back into Russia on April 16th. Shortly after he proposed April Thesis April Thesis called for: 1)The proletariat and peasants to bring about the communist revolution.
2)Immediate peace with Germany.
3) Seizure of the aristocracy lands.
4) All power to the Soviets.
5) Seizure of factories. Out of these, Lenin developed the winning slogan: "Peace, Bread, and Land" Significance: 1)This was a slogan that pointed out Russia's most serious problems.
2) At first, this thesis was largely ignored, but amongst Bolsheviks and Soviets Lenin gained recognition as their leader. August 1917: Kornilov Affair Socialists led by Kerensky Constitutional Democrats led by General Kornilov Loose alliance Kornilov wanted to seize all the power when a disturbance occurred in Petrograd. Kerensky appealed to the masses and the Red Guards (Bolsheviks factory workers) responded to Kerensky. Kornilov was defeated by Kerensky with the help from the Red Guards. Key player: Significance: 1) Bolsheviks had an improved position because they showed what kind of power they had.
2) The influence of the army was further reduced. Kerensky, Kornilov and the Read Guards October 1917:The Bolshevik Revolution Background: Bolsheviks gained a majority in the Petrograd and Moscow Soviets during Sept-Oct. Then they had an armed force to aid with their political ambitions. Revolution: Unlike the March Revolution, the Bolshevik revolution was well-planned. October 13: October 23: November 7: Bolsheviks gained control of Petrograd Bolsheviks took over Moscow. Lenin returned on the 23rd as well. Lenin, Trotsky and the Soviets arrested the Provisional Government and seized the Power. Key player: Bolsheviks! Significance: 1) Lenin got to return to Russia.
2) Bolsheviks now controlled the power. The new government under the Council of the People's Commissars was established. Leaders: Lenin, Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin. Lenin led the country on the strength of his personality. He was a strict Marxist. There are 2 initiatives of Lenin's Government: Lenin 1) The war should be ended immediately.
2) The peasants should seize the land. The peasant and the party had a different understanding of what ownership meant. The peasants thought of it in terms of private plots of land while the Bolsheviks considered land in collective terms. Leon Trotsky Joseph Stalin Private Plots VS Collective Lenin's big steps: 1)He signed "Treaty of Brest-Litovsk" with Germany
2)In January,1918, the old Assembly desperately attempted to restore democracy. Lenin had the Red troops disperse them.
3)Steps taken to introduce communism All peasants were allowed to seize the land.
Factories were in the control of workers' committees.
All banks were nationalized.
Private accounts were confiscated.
The state controlled foreign trade.
All opposition groups were made illegal(included the Mensheviks.)
A Counter-Revolutionary Committee was established. significance:The creation of this government, allowed Lenin to have all the powers, and he wanted Russia to become a true communist country. March 3 1918: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Signing of the Peace Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Details of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, March 1918
against the opposition of almost everyone, opened peace negotiations with Germany. Lenin felt that a young government like Russia couldn't solve all of their huge obstacles while fighting a foreign war. So he was willing to give up large areas in western Russia to the Germans for peace and this was done in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Lenin, Significance:
1) Signing the Treaty outraged the Allies on the western front of WWI, because the treaty allowed Germans to increase the number of forces in the western front.
2)Russia lost a great deal of land but they didn't need to worry much about the severe war for now. War Communism: With the summer of 1918, War Communism began to acquire a definite shape. The state of martial law introduced in Russia by the Bolshevik government from 1918-1920. Key features: a) The nationalization of industry: This began shortly after revolution and was extended by the law on June 28, 1918. The state appropriated most of industry and eventually private industry disappeared almost entirely.
b) Compulsory labour was introduced.
c) Private trade was suppressed: The state would provide food and the rationing of all necessities, and all land became state property.
d) A food levy was enforced against peasants so supply urban population and the Red Army. As the peasants resisted, forcible requisitioning and repression became common. peasants are experiencing famine Significance:
Communism, military and militant, swung into full force. Numerous nationalities who had been suppressed by the Romaovs now tried to assert their independence from Soviet authority. Foreign nations sent troops to support the Whites and to blockade Soviet Russia. 1920, the Poles fought a war to gain territory in western Ukraine and White Russia. whites( who had rallied initially to continue the war against the Germans) Challenged The Red control of Russia October 1917 – October 1922: The Civil War Key player: REDs(Bolsheviks) VS WHITES(other groups who opposed the reds) Whites Drew their strength from:
a)Tsarist Army Officers.
b)Cossacks (the former elite troops of the Tsarist army)
d) Outlawed political groups Reds controlled the central area around Petrograd, Moscow, and Kiev. The Whites controlled the countryside Allied Intervention: In 1918, fourteen countries sent troops to U.S.S.R. under the excuse of preventing Germans from seizing war materials. They supplied the Whites with equipment and protection. By 1922 the intervention had ended. Significance of this intervention: set the new communist regime against the capitalist West form the very beginning. The Red won, the Leader of the Red army is Leon Trotsky, a organizational and military genius. Reasons for Red victory: a) Allied intervention was less than half-hearted.
b) Reds controlled the industry, the larger population, and military supplies.
c) Reds had unity of command, while the Whites fought as many independent groups.
d) Leon Trotsky is a great leader in organizing an efficient and well disciplined the Red Army.
e) lower working class were Reds. Russia Civil War March 1921: New Economic Policy In 1921, the government could clearly see that War Communism was not helping U.S.S.R recover economically. Lenin became more flexible and introduced the NEP which include: key player Lenin's New Economic Policy 1) Some private trade was permitted.
2) Peasants were allowed to sell surplus. They were going to benefit most from the NEP.
3)Workers in small factories were allowed to "purchase" their factory under a cooperative. significance:
The NEP showed Lenin's flexibility, he temporarily sacrificed some of the ideals of Marxism for the seeming necessity of capitalist production. 16 April, 1922 :The Treaty of Rapallo Background:
Lenin and Bolsheviks thought that the communist revolution might quickly spread to Europe, and had even set up the Comintern(communist international)in 1919 to supervise communist revolutions outside of Russia. They held back in making trade arrangements with the west in anticipation of these revolutions. By 1921-1922, they realized that the revolutions were not coming and entered trade agreements with western nations in order to rebuild their industrial base. Treaty of Rapallo was one of them. Key player: U.S.S.R Germany & The treaty included:
1) U.S.S.R would manufacture illegal war material for Germany forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles.
2)The U.S.S.R would receive steel manufacturing technology form Germany. Rapallo 1922: German Reichskanzler Joseph Wirth with Soviet delegation: People's Commissar of foreign trade Leonid Borisovich Krasin, People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs Georgy Vasilyevich Chicherin and Adolph Abramovich Joffe (from left to right) Two significant name changes in 1922 a) The Bolshevik Party became the communist Party
b) Russia became known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics(U.S.S.R) Lenin past away in January, 1924. After his death a power struggle between Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin occurred. The Moderates The Left Opposition Joseph Stalin They want to continue Lenin's NEP. They did not want to pressure the peasantry. They were also more patient in their approach to building a communist state. Stalin pretended to be one of them, but in reality was anything but moderate. Leon Trotsky This group was impatient. They wanted complete communism now. They believed that the NEP would not allow heavy industry to go ahead at the pace they felt was necessary. By 1927, Stalin had won the struggle, in that same year he expelled Trotsky from the Party. After he won, he changed the fundamental shift in communist thinking-- His slogan was: "Socialism in One County" 1928-1937:Five Year Plans Under Stalin's government, people realized that he was far more hard-core than Trotsky. Industrialization would now be forced, not guided. 1928-1932 First Five-Year Plan:
Key Feature: a) Command Economy: It was established in which the state set up production, distribution, and consumption levels. All individual economic initiative was suppressed as the state would guide everything, the opposite of a free market economy.
b) Collectivization: It was a process when Stalin forced the peasants to give up their own land and become part of a collective (Kolkhoz) and a collective Farm committee would tell them what to do. This committee was under the control of the Party officials. By 1932 most peasants were on these collectives. The peasants accomplishments were taken to the cities and to sell on foreign markets to raise currency to pay for heavy industry. Stalin completely and ruthlessly eliminated the Kulak Class.
A Kulak was a peasant who used machinery, employed help and sold surplus.
Stalin eliminated them because they were the symbol of what free enterprise could accomplish and were a threat to collectivization. c)Heavy Industry: Stalin wanted to focus on heavy industry in order to make the weapons to defend the Soviet Union. 1933-1937 The Second-Five Year Plan The goals were too harsh and had to be modified in 1934. A mini-revolt amongst party officials against the harshness of the first plan promoted Kirov as an alternative leader to Stalin. Stalin had him shot. The Fist five-Year Plan only met its goals in the oil industry, but huge gains were made in other heavy industries.
There was a huge cost in human suffering, but Stalin justified it by stating that industrialization was necessary to avoid being crushed by foreign enemies.
Cheka and the OGPU, secret police forces, hunted down any opposition to The Plan and subversives were either executed or sent to Gulags(forced labour camps) Significance: Significance: Stalin had Kirov shot was the beginning of the Purges. 1937- 1938:The Purges Key players: Stalin and anybody who was against him... results of the purges The OGPU was renamed the NKVD and Stalin used it to remove his enemies. Heroes of the Revolution of 1917 were put in to "Show Trials" where they "confessed" their roles in trying to kill and/or plots against the state. Perhaps the greatest mistake Stalin made during the purge was to carry it into the red army, one in five officers were executed. Purges significance:
The killing of the red army weakened the soviet military's ability to command in the upcoming war with Germany. SUMMARY OF STALIN TO 1941 The five-Year Plan seldom reached their goals, but still had a huge effect on production.
90% of peasants were on collectives by 1937.
Agricultural production was greatly increased.
U.S.S.R's population was 170 million.
Rapid urbanization occurred.
By 1935, rationing was slowly ending and the standard of living was improving. Soviet Foreign Policy Under Stalin a)Socialism in One Country: Stalin had this slogan because he wanted to ensure the survival of communism in Russia in a long-term and to be able to resist an attack from the West.
b) Normalization: It occurred when U.S.S.R began to recover from the disastrous effects of the WWI and the Civil War.
The Soviet Union started to take part in the affairs of the West whenever it saw an opportunity to encourage collective security. Thus it signed the joining other nations denouncing War as a method of solving disputes. KELLOGG-BRIAND PACT OF 1928, signing of the Kellogg-Briand Pact Continue with the last slide In 1934, U.S.S.R joined the League of Nations. U.S.S.R signed various non-aggression and mutual assistance treaties with western nations. This with the West was based upon expediency rather than mutual trust.
U.S.S.R agreed to check the spread of fascism at the international communist conference that she led in 1935. rapprochement Continue with the last slide Along with Britain, U.S.S.R became concerned over Japan's aggressiveness in the east during the 1930's. b) Stalin during the Appeasement Crises: August 23 1939: The Nazi-Soviet Pact: On this day, an agreement of strict neutrality between Germany and the U.S.S.R was signed. The Nazis and Soviets still hate each other. However, Hitler got a one-front war with the West, and Stalin got time to prepare. A secret part of the agreement was the division of Poland with Germany. Stalin was prepared to fight for Czechoslovakia during the appeasement crises. Stalin realized that he was along when France reused to fulfill its mutual assistance agreement it had with both Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union. History12 student workbook
Textbook Key Players: Germany and U.S.S.R