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Factory Farming

Anthropology Culminating Project
by

Minnie Samson

on 12 June 2013

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Transcript of Factory Farming

Environment
Animals
Humans
What is
Factory
Farming?

Factory
Effects
There was an incident in Indiana where Dr. Tom Anderson treated patients suffering from large, painful, lesions. These rashes where caused by a bacteria. This one in particular was resistant to antibiotics. Dr. Anderson believed that the hog farms outside of town was causing the incubation and spread of the disease called MRSA.
The federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that by 2005, MRSA was killing more than 18,000 Americans a year, more than AIDS.
Cases
Health Hazardous Cont.
Health Hazardous
A factory farm, also known as an industrialized farm, is a "farm'' on which large amounts of animals (cows, pigs, fish, chickens, sheep, etc) are raised indoors in conditions meant to maximize production at minimal cost
What is a Factory Farm?
Farming
The Effects of Factory Farming
Scientists at the Smithsonian Institution have stated that the equivalent of SEVEN football fields of land is bulldozed every single minute to create more land for farming animals.
Factory farming began post WW2. Because it's purpose was to output as much animal products as possible at the lowest cost possible small family farms were soon replaced. In there place? Large industrialized operations that confined enormous amounts of animals in unnatural conditions. As a result food became cheaper and readily available, however this came with a destructive cost.
Factory farming has not only effected the lives of animals but also the lives of people and the condition of the environment we live in today. Factory farming has corrupted our way of animal consumption. Yes, food is more accessible at a faster, cheaper rate but
at
what
PRICE
The Price Animals Pay
The goal of a factory is to produce as much as possible as fast as possible as cheap as possible. As a result animals are kept in inhumane conditions, where they live their lives in pain, depression, and in a constant battle against sickness.
Animals in factory farms such as chickens, cows. and pigs are pumped full of hormones and antibiotics. The hormones are used to enhance there growth rate. The antibiotics are a necessity due to the confined, filthy spaces which are perfect for the incubation of bacteria and spread of disease. Animals are also fed and sprayed with pesticides which can remain in their bodies and be passed onto you. This can create serious health hazardous.
Each Animals Goes Through Their Own Suffering.
Meat Chickens (Broilers)
Meat chickens live in huge indoor sheds in groups ranging from 5'000 to 50'000. They are forced to eat, sleep and often die in a confined space full of their own waste.
The beaks of chickens, as well as most meat birds, are often removed to prevent excessive feather pecking and cannibalism seen among stressed, over crowed birds. Because meat chickens are bred for fast growth they develop painfully weakened bones from rapid weight gain. Typical supermarket chickens contain more than twice the fat and about a third less of the protein they once contained 40 years ago. In 1950 it took 84 days for your chicken nuggets to reach market weight. Today it takes 38 to 40 days. These massive growth rates will often kill the chicken because it's internal organs just can't cope.
Between 1995 and 2005, the number of poultry used to produce meat and eggs increased by 40 per cent to 57.4 billion.
Egg-Laying Chickens
The Solution?
So, what is the solution for factory farming?
At this present time, in our social economic state it is impossible to fix this social issue. However with time and awareness there may be a future where the animals who give their lives for our survival may regain their dignity and respect.
By being an aware, compassionate consumer we can begin to change the way we treat our food.
Begin to consider buying free range eggs, occasionally purchase organic or free range products. Go to farmers markets, support local farmers. Change begins with you. We may not see change in our life time but we would be giving future generations a better, brighter Earth.
Remember factory farming effects not only the welfare of animals but your welfare and the welfare of your environment.
Egg-laying hens (also known as battery hens) live their lives in tiny, wire cages. They are crammed in with four to six other hens. Each hen has a space smaller than an 8½ by 11 inch piece of paper. Egg-laying chickens also under go the removal of their beaks. Another procedure that that laying hens occasionally go through is forced molting. This is a usual natural process where worn feathers are replaced. However in order to begin the process forcefully, laying hens are starved for up to 14 days, exposed to changing light patterns and aren't given water. 5-10% of hens die during the process. Roosters never even make it into the chicken industry. Because they don't lay eggs or grow fast enough they are often killed by suffocation or are put through meat grinders alive.
Industrial systems today generate 74 percent of the world’s poultry products and 68 percent of eggs.
Hogs (Meat Pigs)
In hog barns pigs can be grouped in crowded pens with as many as 5'000 pigs. Stress from over crowding causes aggression and boredom. Piglets often have their tails cut off to reduce tail biting caused by the over crowding. Other body modification include teeth cutting and castration.
Sows (Mama Pigs)
So, not many of you here have had children, but we've all heard stories on how 'wonderful' it is to be pregnant. So, imagine you're pregnant. Now imagine you're pregnant in a tiny space, like an airplane seat, and you can't move around. You can't turn around and you have to eat, sleep, and defecate all in the same place. Don't worry though, your 'business' falls through slates on the ground to a cesspool beneath you.
Remember you're pregnant this whole time.
So, now it's time to give birth. Well, you know that comfy, healthy, hospital you're supposed to get? You aren't getting it. You will be giving birth on a concrete or metal floor. Also, you're still in a tiny crammed crate, so playing or protecting your child is out of the question.
Within weeks of your child being born he or she will be taken away to fattened up to make bacon, pork, and ham. After about 4 months you're child is dead and on their way to the supermarket.
By that time you're already pregnant again. Giving birth continuously like that destroy your body and when you can't cope you will also be slaughtered. That is the life of a mother pig.
Dairy Cows
In today's dairy production it is common for the cows to produce 10 times the amount they would naturally. This is possible because of genetic manipulation and intensive production technologies. These processes allow for the cow to be able to forcefully become pregnant. Causing them to lactate, which produces milk. At birth the calf is taken away from the mother and depending on their gender are either sent to veal farms or turn into dairy cow replacements. Another way they keep the cows constantly lactating is with artificially re-impregnating. This results in their bodies being under constant stress. Their diet is also changed so that they produce the maximum amount of milk possible. Rather than their natural grass diet, milk cows are fed high energy feed. The unnaturally rich diet causes metabolic disorders that can cause lameness and liver failure. Other illnesses cows endure are diseases such as Bovine Leukemia Virus, Bovine Immunodeficiency Virus and Johne's Disease. Dairy cows also suffer from mastitis, a bacterial infection in their udders. Approximately half of Americas dairy cows suffer from this infection.
Dairy cows naturally live to be 20 years old, however dairy cows today usually only live to be about 3-4 years old
Statistics
More than 665 million intensively-farmed animals were slaughtered in Canada in 2004.

Between 1995 and 2005, the number of mammals used globally per year to produce meat and milk increased by 22 per cent to 4.1 billion. The number of poultry used to produce meat and eggs increased by 40 per cent to 57.4 billion.

Industrial systems today generate 74 percent of the world’s poultry products, 50 percent of all pork, 43 percent of beef, and 68 percent of eggs.
Unclean air: Waste piles up in the animal sheds, creating ammonia and dust. The ammonia irritates and can even burn animals’ eyes, skin and throats.

Unnatural lighting: Factory farms simulate unnatural day lengths to promote fast growth and desired behaviors.

Unnatural growth: Fast and disproportionate growth and production due to selective breeding causes ailments including chronic pain, mobility problems and heart problems.

Non-therapeutic medicating: So that they can survive the filthy conditions and grow even faster, some industries feed their animals antibiotics and/or hormones.

Unnatural reproduction: Many female farm animals spend virtually their entire lives pregnant, putting them under chronic strain.

Absent veterinary care: Most factory farms deny animals individualized veterinary care, including humane euthanasia.

Surgical mutilations: Many farm animals undergo painful mutilations to their tails, testicles, horns, toes or beaks, without painkillers, to make their behavior more manageable.

Shortened lives: Factory farmed animals are generally slaughtered at “market weight” well before the end of their natural life spans. In fact, most are still babies.

Lack of space: Factory farms pack animals into spaces so tight that most can barely move. Many have no access to the outdoors, spending their lives on open warehouse floors, or housed in cages or pens. Without the room to engage in natural behaviors, confined animals experience severe physical and mental distress.
Basic Issues
Cattle
Unclean air: Waste piles up in the animal sheds, creating ammonia and dust. The ammonia irritates and can even burn animals’ eyes, skin and throats.

Unnatural lighting: Factory farms simulate unnatural day lengths to promote fast growth and desired behaviors.

Unnatural growth: Fast and disproportionate growth and production due to selective breeding causes ailments including chronic pain, mobility problems and heart problems.

Non-therapeutic medicating: So that they can survive the filthy conditions and grow even faster, some industries feed their animals antibiotics and/or hormones.

Unnatural reproduction: Many female farm animals spend virtually their entire lives pregnant, putting them under chronic strain.

Absent veterinary care: Most factory farms deny animals individualized veterinary care, including humane euthanasia.

Surgical mutilations: Many farm animals undergo painful mutilations to their tails, testicles, horns, toes or beaks, without painkillers, to make their behavior more manageable.

Shortened lives: Factory farmed animals are generally slaughtered at “market weight” well before the end of their natural life spans. In fact, most are still babies.

Lack of space: Factory farms pack animals into spaces so tight that most can barely move. Many have no access to the outdoors, spending their lives on open warehouse floors, or housed in cages or pens. Without the room to engage in natural behaviors, confined animals experience severe physical and mental distress.
Basic Issues
Manitoba Pigs
260 Million Acres (and counting) of US forests have been clear-cut to create land for producing feed for livestock.
Cows and sheep are responsible for 37% of the total methane (23 times as warming as CO2) generated by human activity.
Close to half of all water used in the USA goes to the production of animals for food.Close to half of all water used in the USA goes to the production of animals for food.
2,400 Gallons of water is needed to produce 1 pound of meat, only 25 gallons is needed to produce 1 pound of wheat. You would save more water by not showering for 6 months than you would by eating a pound of meat.
The EPA reports that roughly 80 percent of ammonia emissions in the US come from animal waste. Atmospheric ammonia can disrupt aquatic ecosystems, ruin soil quality, damage crops, and jeopardize human health.
In the 2004-2005 crop season, all the wild animals and trees in over 2.9 million acres of the Amazon Rain forest in Brazil were destroyed in order to grow crops to produce feed for chickens and other factory farmed animals.
A United Nations report from 2006 states that animal agriculture is “one of the top two or three most significant contributors to the most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global.”
70% Of the grain that is produced in the US is fed to farm animals
Beef cattle live on the range. They forage and fend for themselves for months or even years. Since they aren't adequately protected from weather many die from dehydration or freeze to death.
To mark their cows ranchers still use the painful method of branding. This is when they take a hot iron and press it against the skin to create a mark. Another method they use is called wadding. This process involves cutting chunks of the neck hide off the cattle. These chunks are often quiet large so that the rancher can identify them from a distance.
While on the ranch the cows are in the wild, So when the ranchers come to round them up it cause panic among the animals. Terrified animals are often injured, and become "downed" (unable to walk or stand) These animals suffer for days without food, water, or veterinary care. Many die from neglect. It is known that other downed animals are dragged and pushed with tractors to get them to auctions or stockyard. After auction they are either taken to slaughter or feedlots.
Beef cattle spend the last 60 to 120 days of their lives in feed lots of up to 40'000 animals where they have to stand in piles of manure. They are fitted with growth-hormone ear implants and are fed mostly grain to reach market weight faster and obtain meat marbling. A cattle's stomach are better suited for grass so the grain can cause havoc on their digestive system creating bloating and severe discomfort.
Veal
Ohio Cow Farm
August 2010

A half-billion eggs have been recalled in the nationwide investigation of a salmonella outbreak that Friday expanded to include a second Iowa farm. More than 1,000 people have already been sickened and the toll of illnesses is expected to increase.
Iowa's Hillandale Farms said Friday it was recalling more than 170 million eggs after laboratory tests confirmed salmonella. The company did not say if its action was connected to the recall by Wright County Egg, another Iowa farm that recalled 380 million eggs earlier this week. The latest recall puts the total number of potentially tainted eggs at over half a billion.
An FDA spokeswoman said the two recalls are related. The strain of salmonella causing the poisoning is the same in both cases, salmonella enteritidis.
The eggs recalled Friday were distributed under the brand names Hillandale Farms, Sunny Farms, Sunny Meadow, Wholesome Farms and West Creek. The new recall applies to eggs sold between April and August.
Hillandale said the eggs were distributed to grocery distribution centers, retail groceries and food service companies which service or are located in fourteen states, including Arkansas, California, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Texas, and Wisconsin.
A food safety expert at Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y., said the source of the outbreak could be rodents, shipments of contaminated hens, or tainted feed. Microbiology professor Patrick McDonough said he was not surprised to hear about two recalls involving different egg companies, because in other outbreaks there have also been multiple sources.
Both plants could have a rodent problem, or both plants could have gotten hens that were already infected, or feed that was contaminated.
"You need biosecurity of the hen house, you want a rodent control program and you want to have hens put into that environment that are salmonella free," McDonough said.
The salmonella bacteria is not passed from hen to hen, but usually from rodent droppings to chickens, he added. This strain of bacteria is found inside a chicken's ovaries, and gets inside an egg.
CDC officials said Thursday that the number of illnesses related to the outbreak is expected to grow. That's because illnesses occurring after mid-July may not be reported yet, said Dr. Christopher Braden, an epidemiologist with the federal Centers for Disease Control.
Almost 2,000 illnesses from the strain of salmonella linked to both recalls were reported between May and July, almost 1,300 more than usual, Braden said. No deaths have been reported. The CDC is continuing to receive information from state health departments as people report their illnesses.
Case
December 2012
Economics
Issues
The natural environment also suffers in many ways from factory-farming practices. Sometimes the damage is sudden and catastrophic, as when a ruptured lagoon causes a massive fish kill. At other times, it is cumulative -- for example, when manure is repeatedly overapplied, it runs off the land and accumulates as nutrient pollution in waterways.
Either way, the effects are severe. For instance, water quality across the country is threatened by phosphorus and nitrogen, two nutrients present in animal wastes. In excessive amounts, nutrients often cause an explosion of algae that robs water of oxygen, killing aquatic life. One toxic microorganism, Pfiesteria piscicida, has been implicated in the death of more than one billion fish in coastal waters in North Carolina.Manure can also contain traces of salt and heavy metals, which can end up in bodies of water and accumulate in the sediment, concentrating as they move up the food chain. And lagoons not only pollute groundwater; they also deplete it. Many factory farms use groundwater for cleaning, cooling and providing drinking water.
People who live near or work at factory farms breathe in hundreds of gases, which are formed as manure decomposes. The stench can be unbearable, but worse still, the gases contain many harmful chemicals. For instance, one gas released by the lagoons, hydrogen sulfide, is dangerous even at low levels. Its effects -- which are irreversible -- range from sore throat to seizures, comas and even death. Other health effects associated with the gases from factory farms include headaches, shortness of breath, wheezing, excessive coughing and diarrhea.
Animal waste also contaminates drinking water supplies. For example, nitrates often seep from lagoons and sprayfields into groundwater. Drinking water contaminated with nitrates can increase the risk of blue baby syndrome, which can cause deaths in infants. High levels of nitrates in drinking water near hog factories have also been linked to spontaneous abortions. Several disease outbreaks related to drinking water have been traced to bacteria and viruses from waste.
On top of this, the widespread use of antibiotics also poses dangers. Large-scale animal factories often give animals antibiotics to promote growth, or to compensate for illness resulting from crowded conditions. These antibiotics are entering the environment and the food chain, contributing to the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and making it harder to treat human diseases.


At factory farms, "lagoon" means an open-air pit filled with urine and manure. Lots of urine and manure -- some lagoons are larger than seven acres and contain as much as 20 to 45 million gallons of waste water. The waste is collected with scrapers, flushing systems, or gravity flow gutters, and then stored in lagoons. Opportunities for disaster abound. The lagoons can leak or rupture, for instance, or they can be filled too high and overflow after a rain. But even if none of these problems occur, the lagoons still release gases. Their horrible stench and toxic chemicals harm workers and nearby residents.
Spray fields are yet another threat. Manure is periodically pumped out of lagoons and sprayed on fields. Although manure can be an excellent fertilizer when it is applied at rates that crops can absorb, it must be safely -- and sensibly -- applied. But factory farms produce far more manure than their land requires, and they often over apply it to fields as a way to get rid of it, causing it to run off the fields and into rivers and streams. Farmers may also spray when it is rainy or windy, or with little regard for adjacent property. In addition, the act of spraying wastes increases evaporation and vaporization of pollutants.
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