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Rise of Fascism in Europe

US2 introduction to WWII
by

Al Brown

on 2 February 2018

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Transcript of Rise of Fascism in Europe

Rise of Fascism
Italy
Germany
Spain
Treaty of Versailles....bleh
Loss of Saar Coalfields
Loss of Alsace-Lorraine
Loss of ALL Colonies
Forbidden to Reunite w/Austria
Rhineland demilitarized
Forbidden to import or manufacture weapons
Limits on size and type of military force
Humongous war debt
War Guilt Clause
Spanish Civil War
Republicans (Socialists)
win elections
Nationalists (Fascists)
led by General Francisco Franco attempt to overthrow government
Hitler & Mussolini support Franco, send resources, weapons, and troops
German Luftwaffe terror bombs the city of Guernica
Over 1600 civilians killed
Pablo Picasso, sympathetic to the Republicans, paints Guernica as a response to the attacks
Painting is huuuuuge!!
11 feet tall x 25 feet wide
Perhaps his greatest work
Perhaps the greatest artistic political commentary
Fascism:
Extensive Militarism
"Hands-On" Government (Social & Economic Regimentation
Unity and Authoritarianism
Extreme Nationalism
Often rises from sense of victimhood or humiliation
Often features violent control and charismatic leadership
Corporatism (Pro Big Business / Anti-Labor)
Mussolini:
Plays on the history of Rome
Speaks out against the Communists, promises to protect business and the middle class
Forms paramilitary group of "Blackshirts" to intimidate opposition and project control
After gaining influence, marches on Rome and King Victor Emmanuel hands over title of Prime Minister
Hitler:
Fought in WWI, felt betrayed by leaders who surrendered
Active young member of the German Workers Party
Participates in 1923 "Beer-Hall Putsch", ends up in jail
Writes Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
Reveals Hitler's worldview, and vision of Germany's future
Anti-Bolshevism
Social Darwinism
Extreme Nationalism
Anti-Semitism
After released from jail emerges as leader of now Nazi Party
Establishes paramilitary group, the Brownshirts
why so popular?
Electric public speaker
Blames others for Germany's troubles
Speaks of the greatness of Deutschland
Restores pride in a shaken society
Reichstag Fire in 1933
Hitler uses surge in popularity to force government's hand, and he's named Chancellor by President Hindenburg in 1934
Dramatic Hyper-Inflation in Germany
Nazi's gain large number of seats in the Reichstag
Less than a year later, Hindenburg dies and Hitler takes control
Treaty of Versailles...bleh
Felt disrespected by Wilson, Clemenceau, and Lloyd George
Did not receive the financial and territorial assets they wanted
Italy's economy struggles greatly through the 1920s
Fascism in Europe
Legacy of Versailles
Economic Crisis
Extreme Nationalism
Militarism
"Everything inside the State, nothing outside the State, nothing against the State" - Mussolini, 1925
Fascism should more appropriately be called "Corporatism" because it is the merger of the state and corporate power - Mussolini
Democracy is a Kingless regime infested by many kings who are sometimes more exclusive, tyrannical, destructive than one, even if he is a tyrant" - Mussolini
Italy turns agressive
To demonstrate power, Mussolini calls for an invasion of Ethiopia (also called Abysinnia at that time)
This is not a fair fight, as Italy uses airplanes, tanks, poison gas, and machine guns against the underprepared Ethiopians
Mussolini calls to kill all prisoners
The League of Nations does nothing in response, other than sanctions which were removed shortly afterward
Ethiopian leader Haile Selassie says to the League, "It is us today...it will be you tomorrow"
Full transcript