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Jacques Cartier

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on 13 March 2013

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Transcript of Jacques Cartier

The Northwest Passage Jacques Cartier of Importance to the Past/Present First Voyage Exploration Northwest Passage Biography Did they find it? No. Jacques Cartier did not discover the Northwest Passage.
On his first voyage, Jacques Cartier set sail on April 20, 1534, from St. Malo in Brittany, France with 2 ships and 61 men. He had been commissioned by King François of France to search for a passage to Cathay (the Orient), either around or through the New World. If no route could be found, then Cartier was to seek out riches, especially gold, as the Spanish had found in South America.
On May 10, Cartier arrived in Newfoundland and discovered a barren, uninviting land. Cartier continued southwest and discovered the fertile land of Prince Edward Island which, he believed, was part of the mainland.
Continuing on to the Strait of Belle Isle near Newfoundland, Cartier discovered and charted the Gulf of St. Lawrence for the first time which he thought was just another large bay. However, dense fog forced him to turn back. Why Did He Look for The Passage? Jacques Cartier wanted to find the Northwest Passage so that they could find a new route to Asia. He had been commissioned by King François of France to search for a passage to Cathay (Asia). Was He Successful? Jacques Cartier was not successful in finding the passage. On his second voyage, Cartier heard of rivers that traveled further west from the Indians, but it was near winter and rapids blocked his path. Cartier was only able to report to the king that untold riches lay farther west and that a great river, said to be about 2,000 miles long, possibly led to Asia. Cartier was not successful in finding the passage, but he discovered the world's richest fishing location, and also believed he had discovered diamonds and gold on his third visit. Upon his return it they were proved to be quartz crystals and iron pyrites. He also claimed the new land for France. In What Way Was He Successful? Why Was He Successful/Unsuccessful? Cartier believed that the St. Lawrence River would lead him to China, but ice and rapids blocked his path. Although he did not discover a route to Asia, Jacques Cartier did map out the St. Lawrence River and settle a few towns. Past The importance of Jacques Cartier's exploration to the past is that more of the new world was being explored, mapped out and discovered. He was able to settle some of the land along his new discovery. Exploration and settling of the New World were very important to the people of this time. Also, he discovered the world's best fishing spot. When he arrived at the new land, he laid claimed it for France. He is credited with the exploration of the St. Lawrence region. Present Cartier's discovery, the St. Lawrence Seaway, is one of the world's most important transportation and industrial corridors in the world with 8 states, 2 provinces, and 1/4 of North America's population along its route. It has 40 interstate and provincial highways leading from its docks as well as 30 railroads connecting to its ports.
In Canada, the St. Lawrence Seaway accounts for 2/3 of the nation's industrial output and creates 1/3 of the country's gross national product.
Besides being a major route for most ships traveling in these parts of the world, it is also a major source of hydroelectric energy for both Canada and the US.
The river allows transport from the Atlantic Ocean into what is now Ontario and Quebec. Fun Facts - After his final trip he said he would never search again for the passage.

- Upon his arrival in Newfoundland, Cartier said, “I am rather inclined to believe that this is the land God gave to Cain.” Crossing the Atlantic went smoothly; after 20 days, he entered the Strait of Belle Isle. After following the north shore of the gulf of St. Lawrence for a time, he turned back, then headed south following the west coast of Newfoundland. Then, sailing toward the continent, he deduced the existence of the Cabot Street, skirted the Magdalen Islands, rounded the northern tip of Prince Edward Island, and put in at Chaleur Bay. Believing he had discovered the passage to Asia, he traveled to the head of the bay, but then had to backtrack. A storm drove him into the bay of Gaspé, Quebec. Cartier was to search for gold and other riches,
spices, and a passage to Asia. In 1534, King Francis I of France sent Cartier—likely because of his previous expeditions—on a new trip to the eastern coast of North America, then called the "northern lands."
He explored the west coast of Newfoundland, discovered Prince Edward Island and sailed through the Gulf of St. Lawrence, past Anticosti Island. The first voyage was unsuccessful as after hunting along the north shore of this island, he finally found a passage, but was unable to travel further inland on account of strong winds and opposing tides. As winter was not far off, Cartier and his men decided to head the two ships back to France. Though Cartier discovered that a second voyage would become a compelling necessity: the St. Lawrence River might be the northern passage so ardently hoped for.This voyage put him onto the list of famous explorers. Second Voyage Jacques Cartier explored both shores of the St. Lawrence River beginning from Anticosti Island. He dropped an anchor on the north side of Île d'Orléans. Not long after arriving at Île d'Orléans, Jacques Cartier decided to explore the surrounding country for the purpose of finding a suitable location in which to shelter his vessels. King Francis was impressed with Cartier’s report of what he had seen, so he sent the explorer back the following year, in May, with three ships and 110 men. Cartier sailed downriver to what would become Montreal and was welcomed by the Iroquois who controlled the area, hearing from them that there were other rivers that led farther west, where gold, silver, copper and spices could be found. He also discovered a natural haven at the junction of the Lairet and Saint-Charles Rivers. It was a particularly advantageous setting, as it prevented the ships from being dragged away by tides, and the surrounding hillsides provided shelter from wind. They were unsuccessful on the second voyage. Before they could continue, the harsh winter blew in, rapids made the river impassable, and Cartier and his men managed to anger the Iroquois. Cartier stopped at Newfoundland, where he encountered the colonists, whose leader ordered Cartier back to Quebec. Cartier, however, had other plans; instead of heading to Quebec, he snuck away during the night and returned to France. Third Voyage He had by now abandoned the idea of finding a passage to the Orient, and was sent to establish a permanent settlement along the St. Lawrence River on behalf of France. Cartier's third voyage had been intended for exploration and colonization. The Amerindians whom Cartier had taken with him were so convincing that in 1541, François I sponsored a vast colonizing expedition, and named Jean-François de la Rocque, Sieur de Roberval, as commander. Cartier arrived at the appointed destination one year before Roberval, and established a settlement at the foot of the cliffs at Cap-Rouge, where he also erected fortifications. Cartier learned that the route beyond the Lachine rapids was long and difficult. This bit of bad news, coupled with his discovery of what he believed to be gold and diamonds in the rocks of Cap-Rouge, explain his hurry to return to France. En route, he encountered Roberval in Newfoundland. Cartier found an abundance of what they thought were gold and diamonds. Cartier’s third voyage was a failure. The gold and diamonds that Cartier believed he had discovered were actually nothing more than iron pyrite and quartz! By the end of the third voyage Cartier's reputation has been tarnished by his dealings with the Iroquois and abandonment of the incoming colonists as he fled the New World. Jacques Cartier 1491-1557 Jacques' Early Life Jacques Cartier was born on December 31, 1491 in Saint-Malo, the port on the north-west coast of Brittany. (Brittany is a region of France)

Cartier, who was a respectable mariner, improved his social status in 1520 by marrying Mary Catherine des Granches, member of a leading family.

His good name in Saint-Malo is recognized by its frequent appearance in baptismal registers as godfather or witness. Jacques' life after Journey Cartier spent the rest of his life back in Saint-Malo and his nearby estate, where he often was useful as an interpreter in Portuguese.

He died at age 65 on September 1, 1557 during an epidemic, possibly typhus, though many sources list his cause of death as unknown.

Cartier is laid to rest in St. Vincent's Cathedral in Saint- Malo. Cartier: Rouge Cartier Returned to Canada on his second voyage, and had to stay for its bitter winter.

Cartier made amends with Chief Donnacona upon realizing that the Indians had a remedy for scurvy, which his men were suffering from.

The Chief then told Cartier of the land of Saguenay, which contained gold and jewels. Cartier asked the Chief to return with him to France and tell the King of this land, thus ensuring a third voyage, but Donnacona declined and gave Cartier 4 children to go instead. Cartier, however, would settle for nothing less than the Chief . After the winter passed Cartier forcibly kidnapped Chief Donnacona, his sons, and 3 other natives.

With little choice, Donnacona relented and said goodbye to his people from the deck of Cartier's ship assuring them of his return. As his home disappeared in the distance behind him, Donnacona could not know that he would never set eyes on the land again.

Chief Donnacona never ended up returning to his people. All died except for one girl. Hero or Rogue? In conclusion Jacques Cartier is a rogue. He kidnapped people multiple times, manipulated them and did anything to make himself look good. Historical Minute During the voyage back to France in 1534, Cartier learned from the 2 Native sons, Dom Agaya and Taignoagny, who he'd kidnapped from Iroquoian Chief Donnacona, that their father's village of Stadacona (present-day Quebec) was called a 'kanata'. Cartier wrote the name 'Kanata' on his charts and maps, perhaps to mark the land belonging to Chief Donnacona's tribe. This is the first recorded use of the name 'Canada', and the name by which the country would become known. Jacques Cartier was featured on a Canadian stamp in 1934 Cartier was motivated to find the Northwest passage because he was ordered by the King of France to find a new route to Asia.

At the time, those who explored the new world and made discoveries became wealthy and were treated as royalty.

Considering Jacques explored South America before Asia he must of really enjoyed exploring and traveling.

He was a mariner so he loved being on the sea.

He was sent to find riches and gold as well. If he found any, it was a guaranteed profit. What drove him? On his first voyage Jacques arrived in Canada and lured Chief Donnacona and 3 men onto the boat.

He then kidnapped the Chief's two sons for proof of the new found world.

On September 5, Cartier arrived in France and presented Dom Agaya and Taignoagny (the Chief's sons) to the King. Cartier was quickly granted a new commission to return to the New World the following year. Jacques Cartier: Hero or Rouge? Where Did They Go? What Were They Looking For? Why Were They Looking? Were they successful? In what way? Why/why not? Where did they go? What were they looking for? Why were they looking? What Did They Find? Were they successful? In what way? Why/why not? Where Did They Go? What Were They Looking For? Why Were They Looking? What Did They Find? Were They Successful? In What Way? Why/Why Not? What did they find? Thank You! :) by:
Brittany Briggs,
Madison Peters,
Gina Fontaine,
and Kylee Kolesar
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