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History of Architecture

Indian Architecture; 3rd Year; ARC111
by

Claribelle Marie Tingzon

on 28 July 2013

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Transcript of History of Architecture

Indian Architecture
Geography of India
India is geographically located at 28° 36.8' N and 77° 12.5' E in the northern hemisphere of the globe. India is located in south Asia and is bordered by other countries like Pakistan in the west, China and Nepal in the north to north eastern part, Bhutan in the north east and Burma in the west. In the world map, the sub-continent of India can be easily located as the peninsula surrounded by the three major water bodies of the Arabian Sea to the west, Indian Ocean to the south and the Bay of Bengal to the east. The world famous tourist destination Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and Lakshadweep Islands in Arabian Sea, which are part of the Republic of India, increases the prominence of India's location on the world map. Stretched over an area of 3, 287, 263 sq. km., the peninsular India is world's 7th largest country. 3214 kms of the mainland between the farthest latitudes is covered by north India to south India, whereas, 2933 kms of the farthest longitudes is covered from eastern to western India. This vast area of 1, 269, 219 sq miles make the country highly prominent on the maps of the world.
I. Historical Background
1.) Indus Valley and early sramana architecture (2600 - 100 BC)

The most ancient architectural remains in the subcontinent are the 4500 year-old (2600-1900 BC) ruins of the mature Indus Valley civilization: their planned cities and monumental buildings (such as the Great Bath at Mohenjodaro).
The remarkable, reactionary sramana (wandering ascetic) movements that became significant around the 6th century BC, (the most successful sramanas were the Buddha and Mahavira) eventually produced a very rich architectural legacy.
. The earliest examples are rock-cut sanctuaries and monasteries built in the 3rd-1st centuries BC, such as the caves of the Ajivika sect at Barabar and Nagarjuni hills near Gaya, and more elaborate examples in the Western Ghats, such as the Buddhist caves at Bhaja and Karla, and the Jain caves in the eastern Ghats at Udayagiri and Khandagiri in Orissa.
7.) Kakatiya and Hoysala (1100 - 1400 AD)

In the Deccan, Hindu temple architecture went through fascinating transformations. The Western Chalukya style was adopted and greatly modified by the Kalyani Chalukyas (10th-12th c) who built primarily in the Gadag region of northern Karnataka.
Their style, exemplified in the Trikutesvara temple complex, is characterised by low, ornate shrines, connected to an open, central hall.
The largest and finest examples of this style are the royal temples at Belur and Halebid, but the best-preserved temple is in the small village of Somnathpura near Mysore.
Architectural Characteristics
One of the most enduring achievements of Indian civilization is undoubtedly its architecture. Indian architecture, which has evolved through centuries, is the result of socio-economic and geographical conditions. Different types of Indian architectural styles include a mass of expressions over space and time, transformed by the forces of history considered unique to India. As a result of vast diversities, a vast range of architectural specimens have evolved, retaining a certain amount of continuity across history.

Colonial Architecture - colonization of Indian also had an impact on architecture style. With colonization, a new chapter in Indian architecture began. The Dutch, Portuguese and the French made their presence felt through their buildings but it was the English who had a lasting impact on architecture.

Indo Islamic Architecture - The medieval period saw great developments in the field of architecture. With the coming of Muslims to India, many new features came to be introduced in buildings. The development of Muslim Style of Architecture of this period can be called the Indo-Islamic Architecture or the Indian Architecture influenced by Islamic Art. The Indo-Islamic style was neither strictly Islamic nor strictly Hindu.

Ancient Architecture - Indian architecture is as old as the history of the civilization. The earliest remains of recognizable building activity in the India dates back to the Indus Valley cities. Among India's ancient architectural remains, the most characteristic are the temples, Chaityas, Viharas, Stupas and other religious structures.

Cave Architecture - The cave architecture in India is believed to have begun in the third century BC. These caves were used by Buddhist and Jain monks as places of worship and residence.

Rock Cut - The Rock-cut structures present the most spectacular piece of ancient Indian art specimen. Most of the rock-cut structures were related to various religious communities

Temple Architecture - In ancient India, temple architecture of high standard developed in almost all regions. The distinct architectural style of temple construction in different parts was a result of geographical, climatic, ethnic, racial, historical and linguistic diversities.
Significant Structures
History of Architecture 3
8.) Monumental temples of Orissa (1000 - 1300 AD)

In Orissa, Gupta-inspired temples evolved into a unique and confident architectural style, with a series of structures (mandapas) preceding the main sanctuary.
The 10th c Muktesvara temple is remarkable for its intricate sculpture but it is still a small temple, probably intended for royal use.
. Within a century of building the Muktesvara, Orissan architects constructed the Ananta Vasudeva temple with the full complement of three adjoining halls (jagamohana, bhogamandapa, and natamandir) and eventually built the immense Lingaraja temple complex in the late 11th c.
Architectural scale continued to increase and the most massive temples, built in the Ganga period were the Jagannatha temple at Puri (12th c) and the Sun temple at Konark (13th c).
5.) Post-Gupta regional architecture (800 - 1000 AD)

In Bengal, the most remarkable legacy of the post-Gupta period was the Hindu and Buddhist sculpture in polished black basalt produced during the Pala and Sena rule (8th - 11th c).
). Most of the sculpture was probably intended for private worship rather than for installation in temple complexes.
Around Mumbai, there are some fascinating rock-cut Hindu shrines from the Kalachuri and Rashtrakuta periods, the most famous of which are the rock-cut Siva temple at Elephanta island (6th c) and the greatest rock-cut temple, the Kailasa Temple at Ellora.
6.) Monumental Hindu temples starting with the Cholas (1000 - 1200 AD)

This initial period of temple building (5th - 9th c) was characterised by small to mid-sized but intricate temples.
In the Tamil zone, Rajaraja Chola built the Brihadisvara temple in Tanjore in the late 10th c, the greatest architectural project in south India of the time.
His son Rajendra, built a similarly massive complex at Gangaikondacholapuram, to celebrate his successful north India campaign.
Building activity continued throughout the rest of Chola rule with temples being constructed at almost every village in the Kaveri delta, but the most celebrated examples of later-Chola architecture are the intricately sculpted temple complexes at Darasuram and Tribhuvanam.
9.) Chandella and other central Indian temples (900 - 1100 AD)

The most impressive and well-preserved temples in central India were built by the Chandella dynasty at Khajuraho and surrounding towns in the 10th-12th c.
The central group of monuments at Khajuraho are an impressive ensemble, with the monumental Lakshmana and Kandariya Mahadeva temples the finest examples of the Chandella style.
Other temples from this period include the early 11th c Sas-Bahu temple of the Kachchawaha dynasty in Gwalior fort and the Udayesvara temple of the Paramara dynasty near Vidisha.
10.) Dilwara and other western Indian temples (1000 - 1300 AD)

Massive Hindu temple complexes were built around this time outside India as well. The triple-shrined temple complex at Prambanan and smaller temples around it, all built in the 9th century by the Sanjaya dynasty are the finest examples in Indonesia.
Soon after, these Hindu dynasties moved east and established themselves as the Majapahit empire in eastern Java, where they built a series of smaller high-spired temples around the 13th century AD.
In Cambodia, vast mountain-temple complexes were built by the Khmer rulers from the 9th century onwards with increasingly elaborate examples at Bakheng, Banteay Srei, Baphuon, leading upto the spectacular Angkor Wat complex built by King Suryavarman II in the 12th century as a mausoleum-shrine.
4.) Gupta and Gupta-inspired architecture (400 - 800 AD)

The initial Hindu sanctuaries are from the Gupta period such as the Vishnu temple at Deogarh, Parvati temple at Nachna Kuthara, the brick-built Lakshmana temple on the banks of the Mahanadi at Sirpur, and the Varaha sculpture in the rock-cut cave at Udayagiri, all from about the 5th c AD.
The Gupta style was adopted and transformed by several regional empires. Perhaps the finest examples are of the Western Chalukyas at Badami, Aihole, Pattadakal, and Alampur, where there are rock-cut and structural Hindu temples from the 7th c AD.
The finest examples being temples and rock-cut sanctuaries at Mamallapuram and the 8th c Kailasnatha temple at Kanchipuram.
3.) Changes in Hinduism (600 BC - 400 AD)

Sramana movements and other influences also caused changes in the Hindu religion from the 6th c BC onwards.
By the 4th century AD, the main Vedic rituals and dieties (such as Agni and Varuna) were relegated and two minor dieties, Vishnu and Siva were gaining popularity
The process of social assimilation through the caste system was complemented by religious assimilation through claims that tribal dieties were manifestations or avataras of Vishnu or Siva or their consorts or children
Worship of these new dieties focused on the concept of darsana or viewing an image of the diety placed within the confines (garbagriha) of a sanctuary. This need, in turn, led to the first Hindu temples.
11.) Early Islamic architecture in Delhi (1200 - 1500 AD)

While these impressive Hindu temples were being built, Islamic architecture made a sudden but pronounced appearance in north India in the late 12th century. Rapid Islamic military expansion across the country was complemented by prolific building of mosques, forts, tombs, and victory towers by successive pre-Mughal dynasties from the 13th to the 16th centuries.
The Qutb Minar complex, built by the Mamluk dynasty, was started in the late 12th century with the Quwwat al Islam mosque and its large open courtyard with pillared ambulatory, massive entrance arches and the disproportionately high Qutb minar. A similar complex, called Adhai-din-ka-Jhompra was built in Ajmer over the same period.
The earliest monumental Islamic funerary complex in India, the Sultan Ghari tomb was built in Delhi by the Mamluk emperor Iltutmish, who also built his own beautifully sculpted mausoleum within the Qutb complex at about the same time.
2.) Buddhist and Jain rock-cut and structural architecture (300 BC - 900 AD)

The earliest structural sramana monuments were Buddhist stupas, built in about the 3rd century BC but then enlarged and elaborated over centuries to magnificent complexes, such as at Sanchi, Amaravati, Sarnath, and Bharhut.
Some examples of later sramana architecture are the vast maha-viharas at Nalanda and Paharpur built in eastern India during the Pala era, the extensive rock-cut complexes at Ellora and Ajanta, and the huge stupas built outside India, such as at Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka, Pagan in Burma, and Borobudur in Java.
12.) Regional early Islamic architecture (1300 - 1500 AD)

Early Islamic architecture outside Delhi was equally impressive. Regional governors used architecture to showcase the might of Islam or to proclaim their own independence.
In Bengal, the small Zafar Ghazi mosque at Tribeni was to announce Islam to the local people but the vast Adina mosque at Pandua built in the late 14th century in a Persian style, was a clear proclamation of independence.
Other important examples of early Islamic regional architecture are the 15th century mosques and tombs built in Mandu by Hoshang Shah and other Malwa sultans, the 14th century tombs and mosques built in Jaunpur by the Sharqi rulers, the mosques and tombs built in and around Ahmedabad by Ahmad Shah I and his successors, and the massive Jama masjid, palaces, and royal tomb-complexes in Gulbarga, Bidar, and other sites in the Deccan and built by the powerful and independent Bahmani rulers.
Pictures taken from: http://library.lakeforest.edu/collections/benton/data/research/ellora/albums/jain_caves_ellora/index.htm
Adinatha First Tirthankara
Elephant at Entrance
to Jain Cave
Entrance to Mahavira Shrine Inside Jain Cave
Parsvanatha Tirthankara
Mahaviharas at Nalanda and Somapura
Picture taken from:
https://www.inkling.com/read/global-history-of-architecture-ching-2nd/800-ce/mahaviharas-at-nalanda-and
Kailasanatha Temple at Ellora
Photo taken from:
http://www.templenet.com/Maharashtra/ellora.html
Rock-cut Siva temple
Photo taken from:
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:%22A_mountain_covered_with_cave_temple_for_Siva%22.JPG
Somnathpur Temple
Photo taken from:
http://www.mysore.org.uk/excursions/somnathpur.html
Sas-Bahu temple
Photo taken from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sas-bahu_Temple
Angkor Wat complex
Photo taken from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angkor_Wat
13.) Deccan Sultanates (1400 - 1700 AD)

The most prominent Deccan sultanates that succeeded the Bahmani empire were the Adil Shahi and the Qutb Shahi dynasties.
The finest examples of Adil Shahi architecture are the tomb complexes in Bijapur, such as the Ibrahim II Rauza and the Gol Gumbaz.
The vast necropolis at outside the Golconda fort houses the increasingly massive tombs of the Qutb Shahi rulers but their most remarkable buildings are the Charminar, a monumental, ceremonial gateway and the huge mosque (Mecca masjid) both at the centre of Hyderabad, their newly founded capital city.
14.) Vijayanagara and Nayaka (1350 - 1700 AD)

Hindu temple construction paused in north India during this period, but in south India the powerful kings of the Vijayanagara empire built extensively at their capital in Hampi and in southern Deccan from the the 14th to the 16th century and in the Tamil zone till much later.
Examples include the rayagopurams at the Hoysala Chennakesava temple at Belur and the several gopurams at the massive multi-walled complex at Srisailam. New temple complexes were built at Sringeri, Bhatkal, Nandi Hills, and Bangalore in Karnataka, and also at Lepakshi, Tirupati, and Srisailam.
The rulers continued to build palaces and temples at these sites, such as the Raja Mahal palace in Chandragiri, the Jalakandeswarar Temple at Vellore Fort, and the Margabandhu temple at Vrinchipuram.
18.) Terracotta temples of Bengal (1700-1900 AD)

This new-found wealth and a new Hindu Vaishnava religious movement resulted in the construction of several brick temples through the region in an extraordinary new style that combined the Bengali Islamic architectural features such as domes and arches with north-Indian Hindu temple elements such as octagonal piers and sikhara spires.
Notable amongst the hundreds built in this period are the temple complexes at Kalna in Bardhaman, Baronagar in Murshidabad, Puthia in Rajshahi, Kantanagar in Dinajpur, and individual temples in Bansberia, Guptipara, Atpur, Debipur, and Ilambazar.
15.) Mughal imperial architecture (1600 - 1800 AD)

Meanwhile, in the north, the Mughal empire, became the dominant political entity in the late 16th century and stayed dominant till the late 18th century.
In these 200 years astonishing numbers of imperial and sub-imperial buildings were commissioned in an evolving Indo-Islamic style of architecture.
The Taj Mahal built in the mid-17th c at Agra is rightly considered the pinnacle of Mughal architectural achievement but the scale, reach and diversity of Mughal architecture is unrivalled.
A unique legacy of Mughal architecture were walled gardens built in the Persian charbagh (four quartered) style.
16.) Regional Mughal architecture (1600 - 1800 AD)

Regional architecture in this period (both Hindu and Islamic) was heavily influenced by the imperial Mughal style at the capital.
The Bibi ka Maqbara, a royal mausoleum built by Aurangzeb's son, several mosques were built through the city mostly by nobles, except the Shahi mosque, commissioned by Aurangzeb himself.
To the west, in Gujarat, Mughal dominion was established during Akbar's reign and a building programme commenced at Ahmedabad. Both imperial and sub-imperial commissions included mausoleums (the Hazira built in the style of royal Mughal tombs), mosques, and palace-gardens.
View of Qutb Shahi Tombs from the Golkonda fort
Photo taken from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qutb_Shahi_Tombs
Jalakandeswarar Temple
Photo taken from:
http://temple.dinamalar.com/en/new_en.php?id=284
Taj Mahal
Photo taken from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taj_Mahal
Bibi ka Maqbara
Photo taken from:
http://www.asi.nic.in/asi_monu_whs_ellora_bibi.asp
17.) Rajputs and Marathas (1500 - 1800 AD)

Rajput architecture is best represented by the massive hill-desert fort complexes such as at Jaisalmer, Ranthambore, Chittor, Amber, Junagadh (Bikaner), Kumbhalgarh (Mewar), Mehrangarh (Jodhpur), Gwalior and their associated Indo-Islamic palaces.
Interesting examples are Udaipur the Mewar capital with its Lake Palace, Jaipur the Amber capital with its unusual Hawa Mahal, and Orchha a river-island in Budelkhand, with its massive but deserted palaces, temple-complexes and royal cenotaphs.
Early Maratha architecture also focused on hill-forts in the rain-drenched western ghats, such as at Raigad, Purandhar, and Pratapgarh. Secular and religious buildings within the forts derived from Deccan sultanate architecture, such as Shivaji's shrine at Raigad and his memorial at Sindhudurg, both with repeated use of vaults, arches and domes.
. The grandest example is the chhatri of Malhar Rao Holkar at Alampur (MP) built by Rani Ahilyabai.
chhatri of Malhar Rao Holkar
Photo taken from:
http://images.search.yahoo.com/images
Terracotta temples
Photo taken from:
http://populartemplesofindia.blogspot.com/2012/02/terracotta-temples-bishnupur-west.html
1.Akshardham (Delhi)
Akshardham ) is a Hindu templecomplex in Delhi, India. Also referred to as Delhi Akshardham or Swaminarayan Akshardham, the complex displays millennia of traditional Hindu and Indian culture, spirituality, and architecture. The building was inspired and developed by Pramukh Swami Maharaj, the spiritual head of the Bochasanwasi Shri Akshar Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha, whose 3,000 volunteers helped 7,000 artisans construct Akshardham.

The temple, which attracts approximately 70 percent of all tourists who visit Delhi, was officially opened on 6 November 2005. It sits near the banks of the Yamuna adjacent to the 2010 Commonwealth Gamesvillage in eastern New Delhi. The temple, at the center of the complex, was built according to the Vastu Shastra and Pancharatra Shastra. In addition to the large central temple crafted entirely of stone, the complex features exhibitions on incidents from the life of Swaminarayan and the history of India, an IMAX feature on the early life of Swaminarayan as the teenage yogi, Nilkanth, a musical fountain on the message of theUpanishads, and large landscaped gardens. The temple is named after a belief in Swaminarayan Hinduism.
Photo taken from:
http://www.akshardham.com/
2.Taj Mahal
The Taj Mahal "crown of palaces", is a white marble mausoleum located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The Taj Mahal is widely recognized as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage".
Taj Mahal is regarded by many as the finest example of Mughal architecture, a style that combines elements from Islamic, Persian, Ottoman Turkish and Indian architectural styles.
In 1983, the Taj Mahal became a UNESCO World Heritage Site. While the white domed marble mausoleum is the most familiar component of the Taj Mahal, it is actually an integrated complex of structures. The construction began around 1632 and was completed around 1653, employing thousands of artisans and craftsmen. The construction of the Taj Mahal was entrusted to a board of architects under imperial supervision, including Abd ul-Karim Ma'mur Khan, Makramat Khan, and Ustad Ahmad Lahauri Lahauri is generally considered to be the principal designer.
*The same photo from previous slide
3.Charminar
The Charminar, built in 1591 CE, is a monument and mosque located in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. The landmark has become a global icon of Hyderabad, listed among the most recognized structures of India. The Charminar is on the east bank of Musi river. To the northeast lies the Laad Bazaar and in the west end lies the granite-made richly ornamented Makkah Masjid.

The English name is a transliteration and combination of the Urdu words Chār and Minar, translating to "Four Towers"; the eponymous towers are ornate minarets attached and supported by four grand arches.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charminar
4. Jagannath Temple, Puri
The Jagannath Temple in Puri is a famous Hindu temple dedicated to Jagannath and located in the coastal town of Puri in the state of Odisha, India.
The temple is an important pilgrimage destination for many Hindutraditions, particularly worshippers of Krishna and Vishnu, and part of the Char Dham pilgrimages that a Hindu is expected to make in one's lifetime .The temple was built in the 11th century atop its ruins by the progenitor of the Eastern Ganga dynasty, King Anantavarman Chodaganga Deva.[7] The temple is famous for its annual Rath Yatra, or chariot festival, in which the three main temple deities are hauled on huge and elaborately decorated temple cars. Since medieval times, it is also associated with intense religious fervour.
Photo taken from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jagannatha_Puri
5.Golkonda
Golkonda also known as Golla konda (shepherd's hill) a ruined city of south India and capital of ancient Kingdom of Golkonda, ), is situated 11 km west of Hyderabad. It is also a mandal of Hyderabad District. The region is universally famous for the mines that have produced the world's most famous and coveted gems, including The Hope Diamond, Idol's Eye, The Koh-i-Noor and Darya-i-Noor.

The most important builder of Golkonda was Ibrahim Quli Qutub Shah Wali, the fourth Qutub king of the Qutub Shahi Dynasty. Ibrahim was following in the spirit of his ancestors, the Qutub Shahi kings, a great family of builders who had ruled the kingdom of Golkonda from 1512. Their first capital, the fortress citadel of Golkonda, was rebuilt for defense from invading Mughals from the north. They laid out Golkonda's splendid monuments, now in ruins, and designed a perfect acoustical system by which a hand clap sounded at the fort's main gates, the grand portico, was heard at the top of the citadel, situated on a 300-foot (91 m)-high granite hill. This is one of the fascinating features of the fort.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golkonda
Presented by:
Tingzon, Claribelle Marie T.
Sabio, Laleine
Labre, Erika Jane
Reyes, Jeffrey S.P.
Melendez, Carlo Vincent
ARC111 / 3rd Year
Submitted to:
Arch. Melba Andalecio - Paual
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