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Cities of the World: Los Angeles
Transcript of Cities of the World: Los Angeles
Los Angeles had humble beginnings, with most of its economic capabilities coming from its agricultural production.
When Los Angeles became the South Terminus of the Transcontinental Railroad, the city entered the global economy as an economic powerhouse
The following population boom began LA’s slow expansion into a sprawling urban center. Los Angeles’ population grew to 50,000 by 1890, and exploded to twice that by 1900
Oil appeared in 1892, discovered by Edward Doheny, and by 1923 these oil fields represented nearly 25% of the world's oil supply.
The oil industry shifted Los Angeles from the agricultural sector, and by 1910 the population ballooned to 300,000.
Los Angeles now had a city center composed of many multi-level buildings, with a sprawl of residential and farmland area extending around.
The next residential boom came with the increased demand for manufacturing during WW2, as well as the opening of many new factories to meet the demand for munitions.
After the war, Los Angeles was left as an industrial giant. And thanks to the birth of Hollywood, LA also became a cultural center in the US
It was at this time that LA’s urban sprawl came to be. As development spread, particularly of the suburbs, the agricultural industry was pushed to surrounding counties
Due to a “public choice view”, politicians in Los Angeles opted not to focus on consolidating the LA metropolitan area.
As a result, Los Angeles developed into a polycentric city during the 1950s, one with many centers of business and entertainment.
Part 1: Economic Influences on the Urban Development of Los Angeles
Los Angeles County planner Clement Lau makes a case for increasing the number of fields and facilities dedicated to soccer.
This social agent of children wanting to play soccer is factoring into the need to enhance urban parks and recreation planning.
Los Angeles County is looking at vacant parcels, building rooftops, and under-used parking lots to meet the need for urban park space.
As Lau puts it “We must understand and plan for the growing and diverse needs of the residents we serve.”
Additionally, Los Angeles City Council has lifted an unevenly applied decade-long ban on public murals, ending a dark period for a city that has long celebrated its social and cultural identity on public walls.
“Murals are part and parcel of the social and cultural and historic fabric of the city,” said Councilman Gil Cedillo, who represents mural rich areas of the Eastside.
Part 3: Social Influences on Los Angeles
Part 1 Continued: The Oil Boom and Modern LA
Right now, California’s largest city gets most of its electricity from coal and natural gas. L.A.’s fossil fuel plants contribute to global warming, exacerbating extreme weather like wildfires and droughts. They consume huge amounts of fresh water and produce smog-forming pollution that clouds L.A.’s skies and threatens people’s health.
Los Angeles has an excellent opportunity to invest in alternative energy by installing solar panels to make use of its staggering amount of empty rooftop space.
L.A. must replace
of its current energy supply over the next 15 years.
Los Angeles is a natural pollution trap. The surrounding mountains combine with temperature inversions to trap dirty air. Investing in cleaner energy may be the only feasible solution for a city suffering from severe smog
Part 2: Environmental Influences on the Urban Development of Los Angeles
In 1975 the U.S. required new cars to have catalytic converters, “the key piece of technology that allowed everything to change,” according to Mary Nichols, chairman of California’s Air Resources Board.
The Clean Air Act in 1970 was the major governmental step in improving air quality because it stated that the government has set a standard for air quality and that they are going to uphold it.
California still has some of the worst air in the country. But “worst” isn’t as bad as it used to be.
Stricter city regulations have banned harmful carbon emission producers like backyard trash incinerators, and ozone levels in Los Angeles are just 40 percent of what they were in the mid-1970s—that’s with more than twice the number of cars. The goal is to reduce emissions to zero.
Part 2 Continued: Working Towards a Higher Quality of Life
Investing in a Cleaner Los Angeles
Cities of the World:
Abrahamson, M. (2013). Postmodern Urban Theory. In Urban Sociology: A Global Introduction (pp. 109-110). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Historic Map - Los Angeles, CA - 1891. (2014, November 6). Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.worldmapsonline.com/historicalmaps/kr-1891-losangeles.htm
Masters, N. (2013, March 21). The First Map of Los Angeles May Be Older Than You Think. Retrieved January 18, 2015, from http://www.kcet.org/updaily/socal_focus/history/la-as-subject/the-first-map-of-los-angeles.html
Masters, N. (2012, March 14). Photos: L.A.'s First Railroads Connected the Region to the Global Economy. Retrieved January 18, 2015, from http://www.kcet.org/updaily/socal_focus/history/la-as-subject/photos-las-first-railroads.html
Masters, N. (2014, February 7). Photos: When Orange County Was Rural (And Oranges Actually Grew There). Retrieved January 18, 2015, from http://www.kcet.org/updaily/socal_focus/history/la-as-subject/when-orange-county-was-rural-and-oranges-actually-grew-there.html
Los Angeles. (2009, November 18). Retrieved January 18, 2015, from http://www.city-data.com/world-cities/Los-Angeles-History.html
J., Melanie. "How to Put More Kick in Urban Parks and Recreation Planning." Planetizen: The Urban Planning, Design, and Development Network. N.p., 3 June 2014. Web. 21 Jan. 2015.
Nettler, Jonathan. "Los Angeles Lifts Ban On Public Murals." Planetizen: The Urban Planning, Design, and Development Network. N.p., 30 Aug. 2013. Web. 21 Jan. 2015.
Gardner, Sarah. "LA Smog: The Battle against Air Pollution." LA Smog: The Battle against Air Pollution. American Public Media, 14 July 2014. Web. 21 Jan. 2015. <http://www.marketplace.org/topics/sustainability/we-used-be-china/la-smog-battle-against-air-pollution>.
"Go Solar, Los Angeles!" Go Solar, Los Angeles! Environment California, 1 Jan. 2014. Web. 21 Jan. 2015. <http://www.environmentcalifornia.org/programs/cae/go-solar-los-angeles>.
Module 3 Project Questions
1. What act was a major governmental step in improving air quality because it stated
that the government has set a standard for air quality and that they are going to uphold it?
a. Purification Act
b. Pollution Reduction Act
c. Clean Air Act
d. Kyoto Protocol
2. What percentage of LA’s current energy supply must be replaced over the next 15 years?
3. What industry appeared in the early to mid 20th century that caused LA to shift from the agricultural sector?
4. T/F The birth of Hollywood caused LA to
become a cultural center in the United States.
5. What sport has led to a need for increased urban park planning?