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Chapter 18- The Cold War
Transcript of Chapter 18- The Cold War
Section 1- Origins of the Cold War
Section 3- The Cold War at Home
Section 4- Two Nations Live on the Edge
Fear of Communist Influence
There were also two major cases where the American public was split between those that believed there were communist spies in our midst and those who thought there were none.
Communism in China
Big picture: In the 1950s, the U.S. and the Soviet Union came VERY close to nuclear war
Chapter 18- Cold War Conflicts
-Leader- Harry S. Truman
-Furious that Stalin was originally allies with Hitler
-kept the Atomic bomb a secret from the Soviets
-Leader- Joseph Stalin
-At first, Non-Aggression Pact Allies with Germany
-Upset about secrecy of Manhattan Project
-Accused the U.S. of waiting too long for D-Day invasion (allowed Germans to continue Soviet onslaught)
However, these two groups were able to get along in order to defeat Germany...
"The Race to Berlin"
The Soviets had moved Westward after the Battle of Stalingrad with a vengeance. This eventually became known as the "Race to Berlin".
Why would the U.S. want to reach Berlin first?
-April 25, 1945- reps from 50 nations met in San Francisco
-After some debate, the charter was signed on June 26 to establish the United Nations
Although it was designed to keep the peace, the UN became the platform for the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. to compete for global influence.
-Became President April 12, 1945, when FDR passed
-When FDR was alive, Truman was rarely included in top information and decision-making
-While Truman was president, he kept a reputation of being honest and taking on the ability to make tough decisions ("The buck stops here")
The Potsdam Conference
-The Big Three met in Berlin in July, 1945
-However, this was different from Yalta, in that Truman was there for the U.S., and Stalin no longer honored his agreement to allow free elections in the places that the Soviet Union had liberated from the Nazis
-Create new world order w/ self determination
-gain new markets for raw materials and industries
-rebuild Europe to ensure stability and create new markets
-Spread Communism (worldwide worker revolution)
-Use Eastern Europe's resources to rebuild the damage from WWII
-Control E. Europe to balance U.S. influence in W. Europe
-Keep Germany divided and weak
Stalin also established communist governments in Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia and Poland. These became known as satellite nations. Stalin also made it clear in a speech in 1946 that Communism and Capitalism were incompatible, and there would almost certainly be another war.
Truman's response was to announce a policy of "containment". Winston Churchill called the Eastern Half of Europe as being under an "Iron Curtain".
The Truman Doctrine
"to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures."
-Greece and Turkey were in danger of falling to Communism: they were both massively in debt and facing internal issues following WWII.
-Britain had been supporting countries that were trying to resist Soviet influence, but they were badly damaged by the war effort, so they asked the U.S. to help.
-Truman's speech to Congress basically made the U.S. the protector and aid-giver to nations that were in danger of falling to Communist influence (gave $400 Million to Turkey and Greece)
The Marshall Plan
-Western Europe was also a mess. Factories were bombed, people were living in refugee camp, and the winter of 1946-47 was very rough. Many areas were in danger of radical overthrow.
-Secretary of State George Marshall suggested a plan to rebuild Europe with American money
-"doctrine not against a country, but against hunger, poverty, desperation and chaos"
-The Marshall Plan, over the next 4 years, gave $16 Billion in aid to Europe
The Berlin Airlift
-1948- The Soviet Union tried to take control of the other Western parts of Berlin by blockading it
-The U.S. sent 227,000 flights over the next 327 days, dropping 2.3 million tons of supplies
-food, fuel, medicine, Christmas presents
-This allowed W. Berlin to survive, and eventually Stalin to back off to E. Berlin.
-Eventually, The Federal Republic of West Germany was created, which included West Berlin.
-The German Democratic Republic was created by the Soviets, which included East Berlin
-The blockade of Western Berlin scared European nations into a defensive military alliance on April 4, 1949
-Called the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
-Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, U.S. and Canada
Main Ideas, 18.1:
1. After WWII, the U.S. and Soviet Union's relations broke down due to ideological, economic and political differences and mistrust
2. The Truman Doctrine, containment The Marshall Plan and The Berlin Airlift helped combat Soviet influence
3. Conflicts over West and East Germany increased fear of Soviet aggression
- During WWII, Chiang Kai-shek, the nationalist leader, received almost $3 billion in aid from the U.S. to fend off Communist leaders
-The nationalist government was corrupt and inefficient, eventually leading to more rural support for Mao Zedong as the Communist leader
-Eventually, in 1949, the nationalist government was forced to retreat to the island of Taiwan and the People's Republic of China -a communist government- was established.
-This was a huge blow to the U.S., because a significant chunk of the world's population was now communist
-At the end of WWII, Japanese troops surrendered North Korea to the Russians, and South Korea to the Americans. It was divided at the 38th Parallel- North was communist and South was democratic.
-As the U.S. pulled back its armed forces in S. Korea, Russia started to increase its support for N. Korea so that it could take over the whole peninsula
-On June 25, 1950, N. Korea invaded the South
-The UN voted to intervene, and the U.S. sends military support to South Korea with the troops Truman had stationed in Japan
-16 nations send 520,000 troops (mostly American), and combined with South Korean troops- all under the command of Douglas MacArthur
-MacArthur launched a massive counterattack, forcing the Koreans back past the 38th parallel and almost into China
-When the UN forces reached the Yalu River, it provoked the Chinese to attack, pushing them back and even taking the South Korean capital, Seoul
-Two more years of bitter and costly fighting left the war ended at the 38th parallel
MacArthur vs. Truman
-Douglas MacArthur wanted to declare a full war on China, but Truman refused. MacArthur responded by openly criticizing the president, eventually leading to Truman firing him.
-Eventually the U.S. settled for a stalemate at the 38th parallel- the current border between North and South Korea today
Main Ideas, 18.2:
1. China became Communist from the leadership of Mao Zedong and the failure of the nationalist government
2. The Korean War was three years of brutal fighting, but the borders ended where they started at the 38th parallel
3. A conflict over policy ideas emerged between Truman and MacArthur, resulting in Truman firing the popular WWII hero
-Soviet control of E. Europe and the takeover of China scared many Americans into the idea that there was a threat of Communist takeover anywhere in the world-including here in the States
-Also, at the height of WWII, there were about 80,000 Americans that claimed membership in the Communist Party (why do you think this is?)
Another Executive Order?
-March 1947- Federal Employee Loyalty Program, and the Loyalty Review Board
-purpose was to investigate government employees in search of a security risk
-from 1947-51, 3.2 million employees were investigated. 212 were considered a risk, and another 2,900 resigned because they did not want to be investigated or felt it violated their Constitutional rights.
Also, individuals under investigation were not allowed to see the evidence against them!
The House Un-American Activities Committee
-Also known as HUAC, this agency claim to fame was their investigation of Hollywood. There was a fear of Communists sneaking propaganda into entertainment
-"Hollywood Ten" incident- unfriendly witnesses called to testify, and they refused because they thought these were unconstitutional. They were sent to prison as a result
What do you think? Is there any validity to this scare?
There was also a blacklist of over 500 actors, writers, producers and directors, all with ruined careers.
The Mccarran Act was also passed in 1950, despite Truman's veto.
-made it unlawful to plan any action that might lead to the establishment of a totalitarian dictatorship in the U.S.
"In a free country, we punish men for the crimes they commit, but never for the opinions they have".
-1948- former State Department official Alger Hiss is accused of being a spy for the Soviets
-He was accused by a former Soviet Spy, Whittaker Chambers, who was able to produce a microfilm of government documents that seemed to be from Hiss' typewriter.
-Hiss was accused of perjury and sent to jail
A young congressman named Richard Nixon became famous for his lead on the prosecution
-Another spy case freaked out Americans when they were exposed to terrifying news- the Soviets had tested their own atomic bomb- 5 years earlier than the U.S. had predicted they would
-Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were accused of sharing information with the Soviets.
-When asked if they were communists, they remained silent and pleaded The Fifth.
-They were found guilty and executed in 1953
-The peak of communist fear at home was alerted by a senator from Wisconsin, Joseph McCarthy.
-Most people say he took advantage of the fear of Americans by cashing in on a new "Red Scare"
-In 1950, he began making accusations of Communists infiltrating the U.S. Government
-The attacks on supposed communists in the government became known as McCarthyism (Now it means the unfair tactic of accusing people of disloyalty without providing evidence)
-Throughout the 50s, he claimed to have lists of 57, 81 and even 205 communists that were currently in our government
-This led to his own downfall in 1954, when he began making accusations against the U.S. army. Broadcast hearings depicted him bullying witnesses, and he lost popularity. He eventually fell to alcoholism.
What ways would "McCarthyism" have affected society? Watch the following videos and make a list in your notes of several significant ways that American society changed due to this increased fear.
Main Ideas, 18.3
1. Throughout the late 40's and 50's, the U.S. government made a series of laws and agencies to ensure the loyalty of staff (HUAC, blacklists, etc)
2. The Alger Hiss and Rosenberg cases instilled a fear to the American people that they were constantly under threat of communist spies and takeover
3. That fear was greatly increased by Senator Joseph McCarthy, who used his position and ambition as a Senator to continuously accuse American politicians (mostly Democrats) of being a communist.
4. This fear created a major shift away from many of the core constitutional liberties that Americans enjoy.
1949- The Soviets had now exploded their own atomic bomb, and Truman faced the decision of making a even more terrifying weapon...
-Scientists discovered that they could make a weapon 67 times more powerful than the one dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and in 1952 they exploded the first Hydrogen Bomb
-The Soviets had caught up and exploded their own less than one-year later
Causes of McCarthyism
Effects of McCarthyism
-Soviets had successfully spread communism in E. Europe
-Soviets develop the atomic bomb ahead of schedule
-Korean War ends in stalemate
-motivation for Republicans to gainn by attacking Truman and the Democrats for being soft on Communism
-Millions of Americans are forced to take loyalty oaths or undergo investigation
-Activism by labor unions goes into decline
-many people are afraid to speak out on public issues
-anti-communism drives U.S. foreign policy
-By this time, Dwight Eisenhower was now president of the U.S.
-With the direction of his administration, he established a policy of
- this was the U.S. showing a willingness to go to an all-out war to stop the spread of communism. They trimmed the army and navy, built up the air force, and build up a stockpile of nuclear weapons
Life Under Brinkmanship
-families and schools built bunkers and fallout shelters, and regularly practiced air-raid procedures:
NATO also found itself facing a new rival alliance- The Warsaw Pact
Also, with the tension of more nuclear arms being made, the U.S. began to heavily sue the intelligence from the newly-formed CIA.
In the Middle East and Latin America, the CIA covertly aided in the overthrow of governments that the US feared were communist- both also happened to protect US economic interests in those countries
Tension in the Middle East, particularly after the Suez incident, caused the issuing of the Eisenhower Doctrine, stating the U.S. would defend any country in the Middle East from communism
The Space Race
-1957- Soviets launch "Sputnik", a satellite that was able to stay in orbit around the Earth
-What new fears would this have caused Americans?
-The U.S. poured $$$ into their own space program and, after a failed attempt, successfully launched their own satellite in 1958
The U-2 Incident
-The Soviets shot down a U.S. spy plane over Russia
-The U.S. tried to deny it, but was forced to admit it when it was presented with the remains of the plane and the surviving pilot, Francis Gary Powers
-Overall effect- deteriorated relations and embarrassed the U.S.
Main Ideas 18.4:
1. The policy of brinkmanship brought the two superpowers closer to nuclear war than ever before
2. The Cold War affected multiple regions, such as the Middle East and Latin America, as each country led covert operations to stop the spread of opposing governments
3. Sputnik and the U-2 Incident added to more fear in the U.S.
What is wrong with communism? Why is it an idea that people in the U.S. could be attracted to, and why is it something that the U.S. would go to the brink of nuclear war to stop the spread of?