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Old Russian Architecture

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Tanya ILINA

on 27 November 2018

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Transcript of Old Russian Architecture

OLD Russian Architecture
Architecture of Veliky Novgorod, 12-14 century
Architecture of Veliky Novgorod
When: The Novgorod Republic (1136-1487)
The Cathedral of Saint Demetrius (Russian: Дмитриевский собор)
Grand Duchy of Vladimir-Suzdal
(Владимиро-Су́здальское кня́жество, Vladimiro-Suzdal'skoye knyazhestvo)
Vladimir–Suzdal became the major principality that succeeded Kievan Rus' in the late 12th century, centered in Vladimir-on-Klyazma.
The Cross-in-square Architecture
Dome
Drum
Pendentive
The pendentive is a construction solution which allows a circular dome to be built atop a rectangular floor plan.
cross-plan
barrel vault -
the arm
of cross
A cross-in-square or crossed-dome plan was the dominant architectural form of middle- and late-period Byzantine, as well as Old Russian church architecture.
source: Кавтарадзе С. Анатомия архитектуры. M., 2017
The city-state of Novgorod had developed procedures of governance that held a large measure of democratic participation far in advance of the rest of Europe.
The government structure:
veche
 - public assembly)
posadnik
- mayor, annually elected from
boyars
by the
veche
tysyatsky  
- "thousandman" - a military leaders, who commanded a people's volunteer army called
тысяча
(a thousand), was elected from boyars at a veche for a period of one year.
Cathedral of St. Sophia, Novgorod
Plan of Veliky Novgorod
built between 1045 and 1050
Plan and Architectural Features
39,3 m
34,5 m
5 main domes plus one above the tower
5 naves
3 main apses
gallery
The domes have helmet-like shape from the 1150s, originally they were more flat and less high
Lesene
flat and wide pilaster without a capital or a base
Windows: small and narrow
Portal:
perspective
(recessed)
small arcade
Porebrik
Lesene
(lopatka)
Zakomara
Apse
Zakomara
Arcade
austere massive walls, narrow windows
decoration is minimal
lezenes (lopatki) underlines the building's verticality
St' Sophia Doors
So-called Magdeburg gates at the West entrance were acquired by the Novgorodians most probably at the end of the 15th century.
The origin dates to 1152-1154.
The St. George's (Yuriev) Monastery (Юрьев монастырь) is usually cited as Russia's oldest monastery (according to the old tradition, it was founded in 1030 by Yaroslav the Wise, whose Christian name was George).
The monasteryis located 5 kilometers south of Novgorod on the left bank of the Volkhov River near where it flows out of Lake Ilmen.
The St. George's (Yuriev) Monastery
Saint George - the main icon of Yuriev Monastery, c. 1130
St. George Cathedral in Yuriev Monastery
Tall (105 feet H x 85 feet L x 75 feet W) white-stone building with one dome; construction started in 1119
"Street" Churches of Novgorod
Church of the Transfiguration on Ilyina Street
(Церковь Спаса Преображения на Ильине улице)
built in 1374
Battle between Novgorod and Suzdal in 1170
The Novgorod icon of 15 century
The Icon of Our Lady of the Sign (Богоматерь Знамения), 12 century

current location - the St. Sophia cathedral, Novgorod
The Icon of Our Lady of the Sign was housed in the Church of the Transfiguration since 12 century. The original church was wooden.
The church was frescoed by the Byzantine master, Feofan Grek in 1378. Substantial portions of those frescoes still remain.
Christ Pantocrator, the dome
The Old Testament Trinity
Church of St Demetrius of Thessaloniki
(Церковь Димитрия Солунского на Славкове улице)
Built in 1381/82
The church is lavishly decorated with
porebrik
and
begunetz.
Timeline of Russian history
862 Rurik came to rule in Novgorod
988 Christianization of Kievan Rus' by Vladimir
1237 The beginning of Mongol invasion of Rus
1132 The beginning of decentralization of Kievan Rus',
1147 The foundation of Moscow
1136 Novgorod Republic
1299 The city of Vladimir performs the leading role
1327 Moscow duchy became the strongest
1480 The end of the Tatar-Mongol invasion of Russia
1547 Ivan IV the Terrible became the Tsar of All the Russia
Map of Old Rus in 1237
Russian:
Andrei Bogolyubsky
(Russian: Андрей Боголюбский) (c. 1111– June 28, 1174) was the Grand prince of Vladimir-Suzdal from 1157 till his death. During his reign the Dutch reached biggest size, as well as economical prosperity and political power. The main Vladimir-Suzdal monuments: cathedral of Vladimir, the prince's residence in Bogolyubovo, the church on Nerl, were built during that time.

The remains of the castle of Andrei Bogolyubsky in Bogolyubovo (1158-65, with later modifications)
The Assumption (Dormition) Cathedral in Vladimir (1158-60, 1185-89)
The Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin on the Nerl River
(церковь Покрова на Нерли)
The Protection of the Theotokos (праздник Покрова Богородицы)
Moscow Icon, 16 c
The feast celebrates the miraculous power if the Virgin veil, but it also refers to her protection and intercession over people.
The Church of Pokrova on Nerl River
Built in 1165 on the order of Andrei Bogolyubsky
arcade with columns - decorative element
pilaster: elegant half-columns
stone carving
recessed portal with columns
porebrik
The church is built in white stone, has one dome, four piers, three apses.
Its proportions are elongated on purpose to make its outline seem more slender.
small arcade
arcade
The Cathedral of Saint Demetrius in Vladimir was built by the Grand Prince Vsevolod the Big Nest in
1193-7.
The cathedral was dedicated to St. Dmitrii of Thesseloinka in Greece) - the patron of Vsevolod.


The cathedral is built from local white limestone. Cubic in form with four piers which supports the drum and dome. The exterior walls are separated into three bays with the one in the middle larger than the others. Each bay contains a
zakomara
at top.
The walls are also divided at mid-level by a horizontal arcade frieze. The cathedral has three apses.
Relief Carving Decoration

Andrei Bogolyubsky started to built churches dedicated to Virgin Mary.
10 m
The Cathedral of Saint Demetrius was originally connected directly with Vsevolod’s palace and was for his personal use.
Icon of Saint Demetrius
156 х 108
early 1200s
GTG
The Flight of Alexander the Great to Heaven
King David
The intertwined lions
Vsevolod the Big Nest with his son (sons)
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