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Haz Mat FRO

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by

Matt James

on 30 April 2014

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Transcript of Haz Mat FRO

Required on vehicles transporting hazardous materials
Used in conjunction with the DOT ERG
9 hazard classes
May contain multiple hazards
Not always accurate for our use
CHRIS
OSHA requires an “IC”
CVC 2454 designates “IC Authority”
On-Highway/Road Haz Mat event — law enforcement agency with primary traffic investigative authority
CVC 2454 doesn’t apply Off Highway!
When HM-2 requested for Mutual Aid, we do not assume IC
.
First Responder
Operations

Hazardous Materials
Millions of chemicals in existence
Thousands classified as “hazardous”
Hundreds are “extremely hazardous”
The Hazmat Problem
HazMat Concerns?
Volume of hazardous materials
Variety of hazardous materials
Presence of hazardous materials
The human factor (Murhpy’s Law, Job Security
Elements of Hazmat Problem
“Events” will happen!
Hazardous Materials are everywhere
Our modern standard of living requires Haz Mat use and transport
The Hazmat Problem
Day 1
Intros
Pre-Test
Overview
S
afety
I
solate
N
otify
I
D/ Hazard Assessment
MSDS/ Table Top Exercise
Tools of the Trade/ HazMat Monitors
Class Overview
Day 2
C
ommand
A
ction Planning
P
rotective Actions
C
ontain/ Control (Countermeasures)
P
PE
D
econ Disposal
D
ocumentation
Group Exercise
Final Test
S
afety
I
solate
N
otify
C
ommand
I
D/Hazard Assessment
A
ction Planning
P
rotective Actions
C
ontain/ Control
P
PE
D
econ
D
isposal
D
ocumentation
Video Library
Worried Man
Chemical Warfare
Toluene Tank
Body Recovery

Ammonia Leak
Nuclear Bombs
Hazmat Calls come in as?
Command
Hazardous Materials Group Positions
Assistant Safety Officer (Reports to Safety Officer)
Haz Mat Group Supervisor
Site Access Control Leader
Safe Refuge Area Manager
Decon Leader
Entry Leader
Technical Reference Leader
ICS Haz Mat Organization
If you are first on scene, YOU are IC!
According to OSHA HAZWOPER regulations
Formally assume “Temporary Command”
Setup “Temporary Command Post”…
Where you are
Establish staging area
Manage event until designated IC arrives
Haz Mat & “Who’s In Charge”
ICS provides:
*One unified organization
*Clear functional elements
*Flexibility and expandability
*Unity of command
*Manageable span of control
*Effective communications & coordination
ICS Organization
Incident Command System
Communicate with IC when:
1 -Mission is accomplished
2 - You need more resources
3 -There is a significant event
4 - To give a situation report/update
In plain English!
Information Flow and the CP
Know where you fit!
Hazmat
Decon
Rescue
Fire Suppression
Medical
Protective Actions
Defensive Containment
Security
Groups FRO May Fit Into
Treats Victims
Supports Operations
Agencies involved may be the designated Incident Commander


Military vessels and facilities
State buildings
State universities
State mental health institutions
Correctional institutions
Government Owned/Operated Property
Haz Mat & “Who’s In Charge”
Responsible for hazmat incidents on
“Marine waters”
“State Waters

Dept. of Fish and Game
Agency Coordination & Hazmat
County/City OES
County Agriculture
Air Pollution Control Districts
Parks and Rec
Port Authority
Local agencies are first line of defense for Haz Mat incidents

Fire services
Law enforcement agencies
Emergency medical services
Environmental Health agencies
Public Works Departments
Responsible Party
Incident Command System
Finance
Logistics
Plans
Operations
Incident
Commander
Medical
Protective
Actions
Rescue
Groups Within Operations
Fire
Suppression
Haz Mat
Operations
Establish CP Upwind, Uphill, Upstream at a safe distance
Be Prepared to re-locate if wind or circumstances change
Establish “Staging Area” as safe haven
Locate Staging…
Upwind, uphill, upstream
Within a three minute availability
Where to Locate the Command Post
Responsible for hazmat incidents on
“Marine waters”
“State Waters”
Dept. of Fish and Game
IC
Other Local Agencies
Key Response Agencies
ICS for HazMat
A. Hazardous Materials Minimization Program; Recycling plans and vendor contacts

B. Hazardous Materials Management Plan; Site Map and Chemical inventory

C. Hazardous Materials Marketing Plan; List of customers and chemical inventory

D. Hazardous Materials Business Plan; Site Map and Emergency Response Procedures
6) What is an HMMP and what are 2 critical components of one?
Haz Mat FRO Pre-Test
A. Uphill, Upwind, Upstream

B. Downhill, Downwind, Downstream

C. To minimize the distance that the entry team has to travel to enter the exclusion zone

D. Wherever it is convenient
9) The Incident Command Post (ICP) should generally be set up?
Haz Mat FRO Pre-Test
A. Uphill, Upwind, Upstream

B. Downhill, Downwind, Downstream

C. To minimize the distance that the entry team has to travel to enter the exclusion zone

D. Wherever it is convenient
9) The Incident Command Post (ICP) should generally be set up?
Haz Mat FRO Pre-Test
A. HazMat Group Supervisor and Decon Team Leader

B. IC and Rescue Group Supervisor

C. Safety Officer and HazMat Assistant Safety Officer

D. IC and Safety Officer
8) Every HazMat event requires which 2 ICS positions to be filled?
Haz Mat FRO Pre-Test
A. HazMat Group Supervisor and Decon Team Leader

B. IC and Rescue Group Supervisor

C. Safety Officer and HazMat Assistant Safety Officer

D. IC and Safety Officer
8) Every HazMat event requires which 2 ICS positions to be filled?
Haz Mat FRO Pre-Test
A. Members of the news media

B. Property Owners

C. Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) members

D. On and Off duty Firefighters
7) Access to a Haz Mat scene can be restricted to all but whom according to Penal Code Section 409.5?
Haz Mat FRO Pre-Test
A. Members of the news media

B. Property Owners

C. Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) members

D. On and Off duty Firefighters
7) Access to a Haz Mat scene can be restricted to all but whom according to Penal Code Section 409.5?
Haz Mat FRO Pre-Test
A. Hazardous Materials Minimization Program; Recycling plans and vendor contacts

B. Hazardous Materials Management Plan; Site Map and Chemical inventory

C. Hazardous Materials Marketing Plan; List of customers and chemical inventory

D. Hazardous Materials Business Plan; Site Map and Emergency Response Procedures
6) What is an HMMP and what are 2 critical components of one?
Haz Mat FRO Pre-Test
A. None

B. Evacuations

C. Offensive Actions

D. Defensive Actions
5) Haz Mat First Responders trained to the Operational level may take what types of actions
Haz Mat FRO Pre-Test
A. Level A

B. Level B

C. Level C

D. Level D
4) What protection level uses a chemical protection splash suit with an SCBA outside of the suit?
Haz Mat FRO Pre-Test
A . Level A

B. Level B

C. Level C

D. Level D
4) What protection level uses a chemical protection splash suit with an SCBA outside of the suit?
Haz Mat FRO Pre-Test
A. ERG only

B. 2 maximum

C. 1, keep it simple

D. 3 minimum
3) How many sources should you use when identifying chemicals and their hazards?
Haz Mat FRO Pre-Test
A. ERG only

B. 2 maximum

C. 1, keep it simple

D .3 minimum
3) How many sources should you use when identifying chemicals and their hazards?
Haz Mat FRO Pre-Test
A . A transportation incident

B. Superfund Sites

C. A fixed facility
2) The NFPA 704 system gives you an idea of the general hazards of materials at:
Haz Mat FRO Pre-Test
A. Corrosive, Hazard Class 3

B. Oxidizer, Hazard Class 5

C. Inhalation Hazard, Hazard Class 6

D. Compressed Gas, Hazard Class 2
1) A _______ is a substance that yields oxygen to support combustion under the DOT system
Haz Mat FRO Pre-Test
A. Corrosive, Hazard Class 3

B. Oxidizer, Hazard Class 5

C. Inhalation Hazard, Hazard Class 6

D. Compressed Gas, Hazard Class 2
1) A _______ is a substance that yields oxygen to support combustion under the DOT system
Haz Mat FRO Pre-Test
A. Isolate

B. Notifications

C. Documentation

D. Safety
10) The First Operational Thought is:
Haz Mat FRO Pre-Test
A. Isolate

B. Notifications

C. Documentation

D. Safety
10) The First Operational Thought is:
Haz Mat FRO Pre-Test
A. None

B. Evacuations

C. Offensive Actions

D. Defensive Actions
5) Haz Mat First Responders trained to the Operational level may take what types of actions
Haz Mat FRO Pre-Test
A . A transportation incident

B. Superfund Sites

C. A fixed facility
2) The NFPA 704 system gives you an idea of the general hazards of materials at:
Haz Mat FRO Pre-Test
Hazmat can kill before you see or smell it

Some events can suddenly get worse
e.g. BLEVEs
The Hazmat Problem

Haz Mat events are “different”…

Must respond safely, slowly & methodically

The Haz Mat Problem
Elements of Hazmat Problem
Selected State Hazardous Materials Courses
Community right to know program
Federal version
Required OSHA to develop Hazwoper regulation
CERCLA & SARA
Community right to know program
Requires submission of business plans (Hazardous Material Management Plans or Hazardous Materials Business Plans
HMMPs/ HMBPs must be give to emergency responders
Health & Safety Code Ch 6.95
Title 8 California Code of Regs §5192
California Regulation
Identical to fed reg
Applies to both private and public sector employees
OSHA Hazwoper Regulation
Hazmat Laws & Regs
Respond with & support technicians

Require a more directed or specific knowledge of various substances

Also act as the site liaison with federal, state & local government
Hazmat Specialists
Equipment
Lack PPE

Training
Not trained to stop release
Both Levels Have Limits
OSHA Definition
One who responds to Haz Mat release
As part of the initial response
In a defensive fashion
Doesn’t try to actually stop the release
Contains release from a safe distance
First Responder Operations
OSHA definition
Likely to witness/discover a release
Can initiate notifying authorities
Take no further actions
First Responder Awareness
29 CFR 1910.120
Federal Regulation
Title 8 California Code of Regs §5192
California Regulation
OSHA Hazwoper Regulation
You can be held liable

Government employees have qualified immunities
Legal Liability
Allows flight restrictions over scene
Allows press to have access to restricted area
14 CFR 91.137
Health & Safety Code 25400
Gov’t employees have limited immunity from lawsuits
Government Code 8657
Volunteers have same immunity
Immunities
Mandates IC authority on highways
More on this later…
Vehicle Code Section 2454
Provides:
Training requirements
General response requirements
It’s the foundation for this course
More on this later…
OSHA Hazwoper Regulation
Work within these parameters
Level

Role

Responsibility
and
Limits
Know Your…
Respond to stop the release

Assume a more aggressive role than a first responder
Hazmat Technicians
Primary First Responder role
Safely and competently respond
Within appropriate
level
resources
and capabilities
First Responder’s Role
Plan for response and cleanup

Train employees

Follow basic response requirements
Hazwoper Requires Employers To
Follow employer’s requirements

Follow recognized good practice
DOT ERG
Liability Defenses
Regulates transportation of hazmat

Requires placards, labels, shipping papers, etc
.
49 CFR Regulations
29 CFR 1910.120
Identical to state reg
OSHA Hazwoper Regulation
Allows peace officers to close disaster scene
Can’t keep press out, unless:
Private property
Crime scene
Interfering w/operations
Penal Code Section 409.5
Hazardous waste site cleanup
Treatment, storage & disposal facilities
Emergency response to hazmat releases
Hazwoper Regulates
Civil Defense Film
Identify material:
(1) The substance or material.
Assess hazards:
(2) General, health and fire hazards
(3) Physical and chemical properties
(4) Variables and Modifying conditions
(5) Behavior and outcomes
Five Step IDHA Process
Identification
and
Hazard Assessment

(IDHA)

1- Five Step IDHA Process
2- Department of Transportation’s Emergency Response Guidebook (DOT ERG)
3 -Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs)
4 -ERG and MSDS as an IDHA Tool
5 -Importance of Toxicology
6 -Definitions
7 -Routes of Entry
8 -MSDS Terms
9 -Dose-Response Relationship
ID and Hazard Assessment
Concepts
Most critical aspect of a response
Can take time
Regulations require the incident commander (IC) to do it
Can’t manage the problem if you can’t identify the problem!
IDHA Process
Must link ID with HA

Identify the chemical name and
Assess the specific hazards
IDHA Process
Identify material:
(1) The substance or material.
Assess hazards:
(2) General, health and fire hazards
(3) Physical and chemical properties
(4) Variables and Modifying conditions
(5) Behavior and outcomes
Five Step IDHA Process
Placards and labels
DOT ERG
MSDSs
Shipping papers
can obtain shipper’s telephone number
Facility personnel
Technical references
Technical information centers
Sources to Aid in IDHA
NIOSH
3 Sources—Preferred Minimum
Visual
Monitoring/Detection methods
Hazard Characterization (HazCat)
Laboratories
Other Identification Methods
Known
Conduct hazard assessment
Develop action plan
Continue implementation of PCP DDD

Unknown
Gather information in an attempt to find out what the hazardous material is. If you cannot determine what the material is, then:
Try to identify or characterize hazards with monitoring, hazcat, sampling/testing, etc.
Assume worst case scenario under present conditions
Develop action plan
Continue implementation of PCP DDD
Known vs. Unknown Hazardous Material
Identify material:
(1) The substance or material.
Assess hazards:
(2) General, health and fire hazards
(3) Physical and chemical properties
(4) Variables and Modifying conditions
(5) Behavior and outcomes
Five Step IDHA Process
DOT Placards

NFPA Placards

HMIS Labels
Placards and Labels
WHEN
WET
DANGEROUS
4
DOT Placards
Components of Placards
Background
and Border
Components of Placards
Symbol
Background
and Border
4
Hint!
Corrosives
Flammable Solids
8
Hazard classes and/or divisions listed on table 2 of 49 CFR, Section 172.504 require that you have 1,001 lbs or more of aggregate gross weight of hazardous materials to placard the transport vehicle.
Table 2 Placards
Hint!
CORR
2
2
4
NFPA Facility Placards
NFPA 704 System
Blue = Health
Red = Flammability
Yellow = Reactivity
No color = special hazards

Numbers range from 0 to 4.

Remember: Three primary risks are health, fire, and reactivity!

NFPA Facility Placards
4= Deadly Hazard
3= Severe Hazard
2= Moderate Hazard
1= Slight Hazard
0= No Hazard
Designed to go on individual containers of products that don’t have manufacturer’s labels
Same color code/numerical rating system as the NFPA diamonds

HMIS Container Labels
ERG purpose:
Basic safety tool
Basic identification
Initial actions

To be used at the Engine Co. Level

ERG Book Handouts!
DOT Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG)
White — Basic info & instructions
Yellow — UN #, guide # & material name
Blue — Material name, guide # and UN #
Orange — Guide number pages
Green —Isolation & Protective Actions
ERG Organization
Classification of hazard
Guides — “most essential guidance”
Isolation/evacuation distances — guides
Use table of placards only if no ID
ERG—Good But Limited
Hint!
“P”: polymerization hazard
“Green-highlighted”: TIH, Chemical Warfare agent, or Dangerous Water–Reactive Material that produces toxic gas upon contact with water
Guide 111: unknown or non referenced material
ERG Detailed Info
See page 356 - "ERG 2012 for use by firefighters, police, and other emergency services....."
Responders should have access to it
Responders should know how to use it
ERG Use
ERG
FRO TableTop Exercise
So - Let’s Use IT!
29 CFR 1910.1200
Title 8 CCR 5194
Required by OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard
Material Safety Data Sheets
(MSDS)
Required in the “workplace”
Not just “fixed facilities”
Applies to gov’t agencies
MSDS - Where
Informs employees of “hazardous chemicals”
Ensures all chemical hazards are:
Evaluated and
Info is transmitted to employees
MSDS - What
Transmits chemical hazard information from chemical manufacturers to employees.
MSDS - How
Product and company name
Ingredients and composition
Hazards
First aid
Fire and explosion
Spill response procedures
Storage and handling
PPE and exposure controls
Physical and chemical properties
Stability and reactivity
Toxicological information
Ecological information
Disposal considerations
Transportation information
Regulations that apply
Other information
MSDS Must Cover 16 Elements
Doesn’t apply to:
Pesticides
Food additives & cosmetics
Distilled spirits
Consumer products
Hazardous waste
MSDS - Not
Doesn’t apply to:
Tobacco
Wood
Drugs
Radiation
Biohazards
MSDS - Not
Answers key questions
What is it?
How can I protect my self?
What will it do to me?
MSDS often provide toxicological info.
MSDS as an IDHA Tool
Identify material:
(1) The substance or material.
Assess hazards:
(2) General, health and fire hazards
(3) Physical and chemical properties
(4) Variables and Modifying conditions
(5) Behavior and outcomes
Five Step IDHA Process

 Appearance
 Concentration
 Electrical conductivity
 Miscibility
 Specific gravity
 Vapor density
 Vapor pressure

 Appearance
 Concentration
 Boiling point
 Electrical conductivity
 Miscibility
 Specific gravity
 Vapor density
 Vapor pressure
 Viscosity
 Volatility

 Appearance
 Hardness
 Strength
 Melting point
 Miscibility
 Specific gravity
Physical Properties of Matter
 Flammable range
 Lower explosive limit
 Upper explosive limit
 Flash point
 Fire point
 Auto-ignition temperature
 Heat output
 Corrosivity (pH)
 Reactivity and stability
- ability to polymerize
- ability to oxidize other materials
 Toxicity
 Radioactivity
Chemical Properties of Matter
Acute: short-term,limited,one time
Chronic: long-term, repeated, continuous
Regarding Exposure…
Acute: may not show immediately
may be immediate to several days
may result in injury, illness or death
Chronic: not detectable for years.
may differ from acute effects
Effects from Exposures may,
in turn, be both…
Inhalation - you breath it
Isolate and deny entry
Wear SCBA
Just stay away!

Inhalation is the most common health hazard faced by FRAs and FROs!
Routes of Entry and Preventing Exposure
Ingestion - you eat it
Isolate and deny entry
Don’t eat, smoke, drink
Natural reactions
Routes of Entry and Preventing Exposure
Hint!
Absorption - soaks through skin or eyes
Isolate and deny entry
Wear proper PPE
Decon any exposure
Routes of Entry and Preventing Exposure
Injection - puncture wound
Isolate and deny entry
Wear proper PPE
How can this happen?
Routes of Entry and Preventing Exposure
Many hazmats are odorless, colorless and tasteless!
You may be exposed before you know it!
Approach safely - UUU
Wear PPE
Remember!
Kind of Hazardous Material

Type of toxin

Dose (concentration) received

Duration & frequency of exposure
Toxicology Variables
"Dose makes the poison" Paracelsus

Actually it was "Poison is in everything, and no thing is without poison. The dosage makes it either a poison or a remedy."
Toxicology Variables
"He also said....
He who knows nothing, loves nothing.
He who can do nothing understands nothing.
He who understands nothing is worthless."
Age
Medical history
Gender
Personal habits
Personal Tolerances
IDLH
Immediately Dangerous to Life & Health
PEL
Permissible Exposure Limit
TLV™
Threshold Limit Value
STEL
Short Term Exposure Limit
Alphabet Soup
MSDS Acronyms and Terms
LD/LC 50
Lethal Dose 50%
Lethal Concentration 50%
PPM & Mg/M3
Parts Per Million
Milligrams Per Cubic Meter
More Alphabet Soup
MSDS Acronyms and Terms
Effect depends on the dose
Dose increases – severity of effect increases
Severity of effect depends on duration of exposure
Dose-Response Relationship
MSDS TableTop Exercise
So - Let’s Use IT!
Identify material:
(1) The substance or material.
Assess hazards:
(2) General, health and fire hazards
(3) Physical and chemical properties
(4) Variables and Modifying conditions

(5) Behavior and outcomes
Five Step IDHA Process
Location
(open field vs. downtown)
Variables & Modifying Conditions
Time
(evening or day or hours next to a school)
Variables & Modifying Conditions
Weather
(wind, temperature, rain)
Variables & Modifying Conditions
Stage of incident
(short vs. long duration release)
Variables & Modifying Conditions
Nature of materials
Semi Bad Stuff
or
Bad Stuff
or
Really Bad Stuff
Variables & Modifying Conditions
Type, condition & behavior of container
Variables & Modifying Conditions
VS.
VS.
Responders & equipment
Variables & Modifying Conditions
Availability & amount of control agents
Variables & Modifying Conditions
Identify material:
(1) The substance or material.
Assess hazards:
(2) General, health and fire hazards
(3) Physical and chemical properties
(4) Variables and Modifying conditions
(5) Behavior and outcomes
Five Step IDHA Process
Before intervention
Try to predict behavior of release
What will it do?
Where will it go?
What will it hurt?
Predicted Behavior
Before intervention
Outcome of natural stabilization?
Favorable impact intervention will make?
Baseline Question
“Intelligence” — information that is:
Verified
Organized
Analyzed
Prioritized and Useful for valid IDHA
Intelligence vs. Information
IDHA is “Intelligence”
Now we’re ready for Action Plan!
Result
Notifications
Isolate
Safety
A Brief History
of Haz Mat

SOLIDS
LIQUIDS
GASES
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
Miscibility
The property of liquids to mix in all proportions, forming a homogeneous solution. In principle, the term applies also to other phases (solids and gases), but the main focus is usually on the solubility of one liquid in another.
Melting Point
Specific Gravity
Specific gravity (relative density) is the ratio of the density (mass of a unit volume) of a substance to the density (mass of the same unit volume) of a reference substance (water).
Electrical Conductivity
Measures a material's ability to conduct an electric current.


Alcohol 0.82
Mercury 13.95
Gasoline 0.72
Water (4oC) 1.00
Sea water 1.02
Malathion 95% 1.23
Specific Gravity
Substance Specific Gravity
The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. At the melting point the solid and liquid phase exist in equilibrium.
Boiling Point
Vapor Density
Weight of a unit volume of gas or vapor compared to (divided by) the weight of an equal volume of air. Substances lighter than air (such as acetylene, methane, oxygen) are said to have vapor densities less than 1.0 and substances heavier than air (such as butane, chlorine, ethane) are said to have vapor densities higher than 1.0.
Vapor Density
Lighter than Air Gases - Old Acronym
H - Hydrogen
A - Ammonia
H - Helium
A - Acetylene
M - Methane
I - Illuminating gases (old term for natural gas)
C - Carbon Monoxide
E - Ethylene
Vapor Density
Lighter than Air Gases - New Acronym



H - Hydrogen
H - Helium
H - Hydrogen Cyanide
H - Hydrogen Fluoride

M - Methane
E - Ethylene
D - Diborane
I - Illuminating Gases
C - Carbon Monoxide

A - Acetylene
N - Neon
N - Nitrogen
A - Ammonia
Vapor Pressure
The pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system. The equilibrium vapor pressure is an indication of a liquid's evaporation rate. It relates to the tendency of particles to escape from the liquid (or a solid). A substance with a high vapor pressure at normal temperatures is often referred to as volatile.
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure and is defined as being equal to 101.325 kPa.[1] The following units are equivalent, but only to the number of decimal places displayed: 760 mmHg (torr), 29.92 inHg, 14.696 psi, 1013.25 millibars or hectopascals.
Atmospheric Pressure
Vapor Pressure

Substance Vapor Pressure (SI units) VP (millibars); VP (mmHg); Temperature
Tungsten 100 Pa 1 0.75 3203 °C
Ethylene glycol 500 Pa 5 3.75 20 °C
Xenon difluoride 600 Pa 6 4.50 25 °C
Water (H2O) 2.3 kPa 23 17.5 20 ° C Ethanol 5.83 kPa 58.3 43.7 20 °C
Freon 113 37.9 kPa 379 284 20 °C
Butane 220 kPa 2,200 1650 20 °C
Formaldehyde 435.7 kPa 4,357 3268 20 °C
Propane 1.013 MPa 10,133 7600 25.6 °C
Carbon dioxide 5.7 MPa 57,000 42753 20 °C
The following table is a list of a variety of substances ordered by increasing vapor pressure.
Vapor Pressure
First operational thought is safety
Safety starts with first responder on-scene
All must have positive safety attitude
First Operational Thought
IC must designate a Safety Officer
Safety Officer ensures safety on-scene
may stop or suspend unsafe operations
Safety Officer enforces safety rules
ALL Responders obey safety rules
It’s The Law!
Always keep your distance

Approach upwind, upgrade and upstream

Be a responder, not an indicator
Mental Safe Approach
Don’t get close enough for positive ID

Slow down, shut-off A/C, observe area

Use binoculars to identify/assess - "Rule of Thumb"

Position vehicles headed away

Advise responders of safe route of approach.
Conduct Safe Assessment
Goal is to attempt to quickly identify hazardous material by initial clues based on:

Incident Location
Roadway, Facility, House, Other Property

Container Types
Railcar, Tankcar, Tanks, Drums, Containers, Cylinders, Drums, Piping

Labeling & Markings
DOT Markings, NFPA Diamonds, HMIS Labels

Senses
Last Resort
Safety Identification Clues
SAFETY
LCES can and should be used in every response, Haz Mat or otherwise
The required command system, per:
29 CFR 1910.120 (q) - OSHA
Title 8 CCR 5192
CGC 8607

All say you must use ICS at a hazardous materials incident!
Lookouts
Communications
Escape Routes
Safety Zones
HAZWOPER
Waste
Sites (e)
TSDF
(p)
Emergency
Response
FRO
FRA
Site
Worker
Super-
visor
Worker
Super-
visor
Dilemma
Safe distance vs. control of Perimeter
First Operational Priority
Purpose of Perimeters & Control Zones
Ensure safety and isolation
Control the scene
Limit spread of contamination
Allow for safe working area
Perimeters & Control Zones
Main operational difference
FROs usually set Perimeters
Techs/Specialists set Zones
Perimeters & Control Zones
Exclusion/Hot Zone

Contamination Reduction/Warm Zone

Support/Cold Zone
Control Zones
Exclusion Zone
Contamination Reduction Zone
formerly the Decon Corridor
Staging
- Tools
- Equipment
- Back up team (2 out)

Incident Command Post
- IC
- General and Command Staff
- Comms
Support Zone
Isolate and deny entry
First Operational Priority
Control
Entry Points
Perimeter
Access inside perimeter
Perimeter Control Objectives
ERG
Perimeter Control Tactics
Determine size/extent of perimeter
Per ERG!
Downwind perimeter usually longer
Unstaffed barricades usually ineffective
Be aware of ignition sources
Vehicles
Flares
Use existing barriers
Establishing Boundaries
Use the ERG to determine downwind distances
Downwind Perimeter
If you can't be an athlete,....
Indicators?
Indicators?
Truck: Bill of Lading (In cab)
Locations of Shipping Papers
Air: Air Bill (In cockpit)
Locations of Shipping Papers
Rail: Waybill & Consist (With crew)
Locations of Shipping Papers
Lundgren Shipping
Vessel: Dangerous Cargo Manifest (On bridge)
Locations of Shipping Papers
?
Should include info about products
But they may not always be accurate or complete
Shipping Papers
In chemistry and physics, volatility is the tendency of a substance to vaporize. Volatility is directly related to a substance's vapor pressure. At a given temperature, a substance with higher vapor pressure vaporizes more readily than a substance with a lower vapor pressure.
Volatility
Lower Explosive Limit
Upper Explosive Limit
Lower explosive limit (LEL): The lowest concentration (percentage) of a gas or a vapor in air capable of producing a flash of fire in presence of an ignition source (arc, flame, heat). The term is considered to be the same as the lower flammable limit (LFL). At a concentration in air lower than the LEL are gas mixtures are "too lean" to burn.
Upper explosive limit (UEL): Highest concentration (percentage) of a gas or a vapor in air capable of producing a flash of fire in presence of an ignition source (arc, flame, heat). Concentration higher than UFL or UEL are "too rich" to burn.
Flammable Range

The range of flammable vapor or gas-air mixture between the upper and lower flammable limits is known as the 'flammable range', also often referred to as the 'explosive range'.
Flammable Range
The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which it can vaporize to form an ignitable mixture in air. Measuring a flash point requires an ignition source. At the flash point, the vapor may cease to burn when the source of ignition is removed
Flash Point
Fire Point
The fire point of a fuel is the temperature at which it will continue to burn for at least 5 seconds after ignition by an open flame. Most tables of material properties will only list material flash points, but in general the fire points can be assumed to be about 10 °C higher than the flash points.
Auto Ignition Temperature
The lowest temperature at which it will spontaneously ignite in a normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark. This temperature is required to supply the activation energy needed for combustion.
Heat Output/ Heat of Combustion
Notifications
First Operational Alert
Notifications
First Operational Alert
Mandatory notifications

Resource requests

Report of conditions
Types of Notifications
Responsible party must make “Mandatory” notifications
To proper authorities
Releases with potential adverse impact
Health
Safety
Environment
RP Notification Requirements
Responder — make same notifications as back-up
RP must make “mandatory” notifications
Possible civil/criminal penalties for
non–notification!
Notification Requirements
“Mandatory” notifications
Local 911 — Local dispatch
CUPA/Administering Agency — ???
State Warning Center — (800) 852-7550
National Response Center — (800) 424-8802
Notification Requirements
Pesticides – County Agriculture
Spill in state waters – OES, now CalEMA
Highways – CHP
Radiologicals – DHS, EPA-RAP
Wildlife – DF&G
Prop 65 substances – County
Other Notifications Required
AKA: Alphabet Soup
Notify District Superintendent
Acutely hazardous material release
Within ½ mile of a school
Notifications for Schools
RP makes mandatory notifications
Responders:
Releases near schools
Responsibility for Notifications
Nature of problem
Quantity released
Other potential hazards
(e.g. fire!)
Information Needed
For Federal Agencies
National Response Center
(800) 424-8802
Key Notification Points
For State Agencies
State Warning Center
(800) 852-7550
Key Notification Points
Types of resources to request
People
Equipment
Facilities
Request for Resources
Facilities
CP
EOC
Evacuee shelters
Hazmat Resources
Off-site resources
CHEMTREC
CHLOREP
USA
Poison Control
Hazmat Resources
Know local resources & request early
You are not alone
Resources are available
You must request them

? Remember the most important “Rule of Thumb” for the FRA?
Rules of Thumb
What you see
What you need
What you are doing
(or have done)
Report of Conditions
Helps IC
Assess initial actions
ID needed resources
Begin the IDHA process
Report of Conditions

The heat of combustion is the energy released as heat when a compound undergoes complete combustion with oxygen under standard conditions. The chemical reaction is typically a hydrocarbon reacting with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, water and heat.
pH / Corrosivity
In chemistry, pH is a measure of the activity of the (solvated) hydrogen ion.
pH / Corrosivity
Pure water has a pH very close to 7 at 25°C. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are said to be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline.
Protective
Actions

Contain & Control/
Countermeasures

Disposal
Documentation
Hazcat Kit
The Hazcat kit is used to take samples of unknown materials and test them thru systematic algorithm testing to categorize basic characteristics according to their hazard class. Simply put, this is a test kit for establishing the hazards and properties of an unknown. The experienced Hazmat responder uses this information to protect themselves, identify the material, and often, clean up the event without the need for further laboratory analysis.
LCD uses advanced non rad Ion Mobility Spectrometry
To detect Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Industrial
Chemicals.
LCD
Lightweight Chemical Detector
Hazmat ID
This unit uses an Infrared Laser (Infrared Spectroscopy) to identify solids, liquids and pastes. It recognizes Organic compounds such as: Petroleum products, Pesticides, Fertilizers, Plastics, Plant materials, and many inorganic compounds including: Water, Mineral Acids (Sulfuric, Nitric, .), Inorganic, Oxides (Rust, Talc, .), Nitrates, Chlorates and Phosphates. The onboard computer compares the sample with a library of over 4000 known materials to select the most probable match for interpretation by Haz-Mat Specialists.
Use for sealing gullies and sewer pipes after
accidents with Hazardous Materials. Preventing
ground water pollution, damming environmentally
dangerous liquids. Sealing filler pipes on roads and
rail tankers.
Vetter Sealing Bags
The Technical Reference Library consist of a library of chemical book and compact disks that the Tech/Ref personnel will use to determine hazards of a given chemical. These must be cross referenced and verified with at least 3 separate sources to insure accuracy and safety of the responders.
Technical Reference Library
Ahura First Defender
Ahura First Defender is a portable hand held Raman Spectrometer. It is a chemical identification system for liquids and solids. The First Defender uses a laser to shoot into the product to find it’s Raman/Fluorescence signal. It can be used through clear glass and plastic or you can place a small amount of the product in the sample vials and put it in the machine for analysis. Do not use on dark or flourescents materials. It is a laser so be careful!
Tools of the Trade
Pads and Booms
Mercury Spill Kit
This kit is used to control and collect liquid Mercury spills using a hand held suction tube, and Mercury absorbent pads. A major environmental concern, Mercury is a highly toxic “heavy metal” with significant and irreversible neurological effects .
Liquid Transfer Equipment
Radiological Meters
Tools of the Trade
Chlorine Kits
The Chlorine Kits come in three sizes A Kit (RED) for 100 and 150 Lb. Cylinders, B Kit (YELLOW) for One Ton Cylinders and the C Kit (GREEN) for Rail Car Containers. Everything in the Kits are color coded for that specific Kit. All three Kits were developed by the Chlorine Institute for capping leaking chlorine containers.
Gas Detection Meters
Personal Protective Equipment
And Monitoring

(PPE)

Levels
Selection criteria
Uses in Control Zones
Limitations
Respiration
Types
Requirements for use
Monitoring
PPE Topics
Hint!
Level D
no respiratory protection
minimal splash/vapor protection
CPC may absorb liquids/vapors
Level C
APR & modest skin protection
air purifying respirator
modest CPC to protect skin
Level B
supplied air
good skin protection
SCBA or SAR respiration
full CPC, not vapor-tight
Level A
supplied air
best skin protection
SCBA or SAR respiration
fully encapsulated, vapor-tight
Protection “Levels”
IDHA!
Haz Mat Group & Safety Officer judgment
Skin & respiratory protection needed
Selection Criteria - Basic
Physical form of material
Degree of hazard
Other
Oxygen level
CPC compatibility
Degree of unknowns
Selection Criteria
Level D
No Hazards
(FRA & FRO)
Level C
inhalation hazard
absorption hazard
Level B
inhalation hazard ≥ IDLH
or
low oxygen
Level A
unknown material
or
known material with significant vapor absorption hazard
Selection Criteria
Hazmat Group will select level
Safety Officer approves proper level
If IDHA is incomplete
Must select highest level!
Selection Criteria
Exclusion zone
Level A, B or C
(Level C rarely used for emergency response)
Contamination Reduction Zone
Same or one level below EZ
Support Zone
None required
PPE & Control Zones

Effect of temperature on shelf life
Cryogenic hazards
Thermal influences
Seal–a–meal
No one suit protects for all Haz Mats
Impaired vision and mobility
Heat stress
PPE Limitations
Penetration
Degradation
Permeation
process by which a chemical dissolves in and/or moves through a protective clothing material on a molecular level.
CPC Limitations
Supplied air, positive pressure ensemble with:
Face Piece
Regulator
Cylinder
Harness

What about a PASS device?
Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)
Absorbs or filters contaminants. Components include:
Face Piece
Canister
Air-Purifying Respirator (APR)
Physical Exam
Fit testing
Training
Air monitoring
Maintenance & storage
Requirements for Use
Level A Suit
Level B Suit
Level B suits are designed for splash protection only, are not vapor tight and are non-encapsulating. They are worn with gloves, boots and an SCBA on the outside of the suit for respiratory protection. Level B is one step below a level A suit because it is non-encapsulated. Haz Mat 2 maintain 4 Level B Plus and 6 Level B Suit on the rig.
Level B Tactical Suit
Lion Tactix MT-94
Level C Suit
Level C Suit
with PAPR
Level D

Priorities
People
Environment
Property

All Haz Mat Events Eventually Stabilize

Non-intervention Strategy

Defensive “Containment” Strategy
Main Points
When?
When it’s safe to do
When the benefit outweighs the risk

Why?
Limit spread of haz mat
Reduce life & health risk
Protect environment and property
Reduce cleanup costs &limit liability
When and Why?
Hint!
Non-Intervention
: SIN only!
“no-fight”
done by ALL trained levels

Containment
: Slow & restrict spread
defensive
usually done by FROs

Control
: Stops Haz Mat release
offensive
usually done by Technicians and/or Specialists
Three Strategies - in order!
Move from one to another when
Level (of training)
Resources
Capabilities
Are in line with the strategy
Three Strategies
Containment Tools & Equipment
Shovels, dump trucks, dirt, sand bags, plastic bags, plastic sheet, earth moving equipment, foam, salvage covers, absorbents, fire hose, etc. etc. etc. etc. etc.
Methods of Containment
X
Dike
Divert
Methods of Containment
Dam
Standard dam contains all
Overflow dam contains lower phase
Underflow dam contains upper phase
used when material is not water soluble and specific gravity is less than 1.
Methods of Containment
Disperse
Methods of Containment
Dilute
Methods of Containment
Cover
Methods of Containment
Foam
Methods of Containment
Control vs. Containment
Responders must know the difference
Potential for contact with material?
It’s “control”
Remember: Control is “offensive,” usually done by Technicians or Specialists, and requires PPE not normally worn by FROs!
Technicians
Specialists
With proper PPE!
Who Does Control?
Plug and patch
e.g. fix hole in drum or pipe
Absorb/Adsorb
e.g. apply pads to oil spill
Methods of Offensive Control
Transfer
e.g. pump product to vacuum truck
Containerize
e.g. put leaking drum into overpack
Other
e.g. reposition drum or shut off valve
Methods of Offensive Control
DAM
DIKE
DIVERT
DISPERSE
DILUTE
COVER
Be prepared to make changes as needed
Decon
Why, When, Who, What & How
Emergency Decontamination
Decon Team Personnel, Roles & Responsibilities
Main Points
Follow basic safety guides
Establish & observe control zones
Ensure all follow above
Minimizing Exposure & Contamination
Amount of material on you
Length of time it’s on you
Concentration of material
Physical state of material
Ambient temperatures
Degree of Contamination
Who/What: People & equipment
Victims
Responders
Equipment
Structures
Who, What, When & Why
When: Anytime you suspect contamination
Material is visible
Victim complains of pain, odor, etc.
Victim was near release
Who, What, When & Why
Who usually does decon:
FRO’s (properly trained & equipped)
Tech’s and Specialists via Decon Team
How to decon: No absolute methods
Only general guides
Who, What, When & Why
Filthy
Clean
Dirty
Procedures follow logical order
Go from “dirty” to “clean”
Check your plan
Performing Decon
Same level as entry team
May be one level down
Degree of hazard
Amount of contamination
Length of exposure
Protective Clothing
Many haz mats are odorless, colorless and tasteless
Acute effects may not show up immediately
You may not be able to confirm exposure/contamination
Warning!
Primary
Done at the scene
Secondary
Done post incident
Emergency
Can be done by first responders
Types of Decon
Guidelines
In least environmentally sensitive area
Remove contaminated clothing
Flush with water
Try to preserve modesty for victim
Emergency Decon
IAP must include provisions for decon
Decon Roles & Responsibilities
Hot Zone = Isolation Zone

Warm Zone = Contamination Reduction Zone = Decon Corridor

Cold Zone = Support Zone
Isolation Zones - Termonology
Contamination Reduction Zone
formerly the Decon Corridor
Supervises Decon Unit
Decon Unit Leader
Acute/Chronic health effects
Problem gets bigger
Death!
Consequences of No Decon
Purpose: Prevent spread of contamination
Decon procedures are guides only
Summary
(1) Identify gains to life, environment and property
(2) Identify risks to life, environment and property
(3) Assess level, resources and capabilities of responders
(4) Assess overall safety
(5) Assess overall viability of action
5 Step Risk vs. Gain Process
FROs must:
Understand & prioritize goals
Mentally conduct Risk vs. Gain assessment
Coordinate with all responders

Before taking any tactical action!
Risk Versus Gain Assessment
Won’t develop written plans (usually)
Should have response objectives
Should plan before acting
FRO Role
It’s the law (OSHA regs)
29 CFR 1910.120(q)(6)
Title 8 CCR 5192(q)(6)

Responders must have an incident action plan for hazardous materials incidents, and know their
Roles
Responsibilities
Scene management system
Standard operating procedures
Have a Plan, Know the Plan!
BLEVE = Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion
Know BLEVE signs, consequences.
BLEVE potential demands Risk vs. Gain assessment before action!
Ex: BLEVE
Pro: Rescue and save lives
Cons: Risk to responders
Dilemma: Rescue/not rescue
Consider acceptable risk
Ex: Rescue in Exclusion Zone
ERG Guide pages
MSDS recommendations
Employer guidelines
Sources of FRO Plan Info
Regs require two plans
Incident Action Plan - ICS 201
Site Safety Plan - ICS 208
Action Plans
Components of action plans
ID the problem
ID resources available
Use available resources to solve problem

Action Planning
Driven by safety,
Tempered by common sense,
Take action only if Gains outweigh Risks!
Risk Versus Gain Concept
Cold Blooded
Haz Mat incidents create haz waste
“Waste” = material that you can’t re-use
Disposal Requirements
Strict legal requirements
Track from cradle to grave
You must know them and follow them
Disposal Requirements
“Flushing Haz Mats Away”?
Often considered an illegal act!
Disposal Requirements
Funding and “Responsible Party”:
Accepts clean-up duty
Gives clean-up high priority
Conducts cleanup adequately
Funding begins with and ends with RP
Funding Requirements
Cost recovery
Exposure records
Training records
Future lawsuits & investigations, etc.
Reasons for Documentation
Tort Law
You get sued for causing injury or damage to someone or some thing
Basic Legal Concepts
Vicarious Liability
Your employer gets sued for something you did.
Basic Legal Concepts
Joint and Several Liability
Deep pockets!
Many get sued
Few pay
Basic Legal Concepts
Followed employer’s policies and guidelines
Incident Action Plan
Followed “reasonable person” efforts
Performed duty diligently and with prudence
Documented duties well
Followed recognized good practices
SIN CIA PCP DDD!
Understood scope of duties and performed within limitations
Examples of Good Legal Defenses
Date, time and location
Names of all personnel
Actions taken, resources used, costs incurred
Chemical names, incident conditions and observations
Sample data
Witness statements
Diagrams, photos, videos
Components of Good Documentation
Salazar, Robert
Mike Zolotoff
Keep exposure records!
Employer must keep for 30 years
All responders: keep own copies
Chemical Exposure Records
Protective Actions
Evacuation
Shelter-in-Place
and, oh yeah... Rescue
Protective Actions
Decisions to evacuate or shelter-in-place can be complex.
Requires 6 basic considerations.
Decision Considerations
6
Materials involved
Population threatened
Responders’ training, resources & capabilities
Time factors involved
Current and predicted weather
Ability to communicate with public
Decision Considerations
Materials involved
Explosive or highly toxic material would favor evacuation over shelter-in-place.
Decision Considerations
Population threatened
Decision Considerations
Hospitals, high-rises & institutions
Evacuation may not be practical
Protective action choice would dictate Shelter-in-Place
Where to Shelter-in-Place? Varies with conditions…
e.g. Should use an upper floor of a multi-story building for a hazardous material with a vapor density greater than 1.
Special Populations - Issues
Feeding & securing population
Shift changes for staff
Shortage of supplies for in-place protection (e.g. tape)
Transportation of population
Special Populations - Problems
Responder resources & capabilities
Decision Considerations
Time factors involved
Decision Considerations
Current and predicted weather
Decision Considerations
Ability to communicate with public
Decision Considerations
Clear delineation of area to protect

Methods of protection
evacuation orders, priorities, personnel
shelter-in-place orders, equipment, training

Procedures for lifting protection orders
Protective Action Messages
Selecting an option is half the job
Must manage inevitable problems
No choice will be easy to implement
Expect problems
Expect criticism & second-guessing
Selection and Management
Level D
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