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Physical and psychological changes to ageing

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junaid khaliq

on 11 March 2015

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Transcript of Physical and psychological changes to ageing

Physical and Psychological changes
Nervous system changes
Physical changes
Cardiovascular system
Normal condition that all women experience as they age
Ageing is something we all do but understand very little
That which happens to our bodies over time
Impact of time on our bodies
No one really understands what aging is, why it happens or how to stop it
Ageing process happens to all adults at varying rates .. depending on lifestyle and socioeconomic environmental and genetic factors
Effects all body system
Positive elements to ageing - wisdom, maturity, life experiences and development of self concept
-Prostate changes
-Reduced fertility
-May need glasses
-May need hearing aid
-Loss/thinning of hair
-Poor memory
-Slower reactions
-Cardiovascular changes
-Respiratory changes
-Musculo skeletal changes
-Detoriation of sense/smell
-Skin less elastic
-Decline in mobility
Puberty is when male and female hormones activate the secondary sex characteristics in males and females
Ageing reflects all the changes that occur over the course of life. You grow. You develop. You reach maturity
A century ago.. the average life span in the UK was only 49 years for men, and 52 for women
Average life span has risen to over 77 for men and nearly 82 for women
Hormones are chemical messengers that are secreted directly into the blood, which carries them to organs and tissues of the body to exert their functions
Important when you start to go through puberty, which is when you begin developing into an adult
You're loaded with hormones that tell your body that it's time to start changing
What happens when these hormones stop?
Female - menopause - cannot conceive
Male - menopause - sperm declines
Term "menopause" can describe any of the changes a woman goes through either just before or after she stops menstruating, marking the end of her reproductive period
What Causes Menopause?
Born with a finite number of eggs, which are stored in the ovaries
Ovaries also make the hormones estrogen and progesterone, which control menstruation and ovulation. Menopause happens when the ovaries no longer release an egg every month and menstruation stops
Considered a normal part of aging when it happens after the age of 40
Women can go through menopause early, either as a result of surgery, such as hysterectomy, or damage to the ovaries, such as from chemotherapy
Menopause before 40, regardless of the cause.. premature menopause
Build up of fatty deposits within the walls of the coronary arteries
Fatty deposits are called atheroma .. and made up of cholesterol and waster materials from cells
As it builds ... forms raised areas in the arteries called plaques.. these areas cause a reduction/slowing of oxygen rich blood flow to the cardiac muscle ..
Which makes the heart efficient or less efficient
Coronary heart disease
All arteries have different names depending on the area of the body they supply
Arteries that supply heart and cardiac muscle are called coronary arteries .. so when they are affected its called ........
Heart required oxygenated blood to function properly and this is supplied via coronary arteries
If restricted (atherosclerosis) or blocked by a clot (thrombosis) .. then angina or heart attack can result
Factors that increase risk of CHD are high cholesterol, smoking, high blood pressure, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes and family history
Respiratory changes
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Collective respiratory disorder which includes conditions chronic bronchitis, emphysema and chronic asthma
Affects the respiratory system making it difficult to breath
Chronic or long term disease therefore it usually affects people over the age of 40
Responsible for over 30,000 deaths a year in England and Wales
Usually caused by smoking .. other causes = occupational exposure to dusts, indoor pollutants, air pollutants or inherited causes
Some people have inherited form of emphysema where a lack of protein alpha - 1- antitrypsin results in emphysema
Also caused by lung damage caused by infection (chronic), smoke or pollutants and it damages elastic structure supporting the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs
Alveoli are grape like structures where gaseous exchange occurs
This is reduced to a sac like structure in emphysema.. the result is reduced surface area .. so breathlessness occurs
Cognitive changes
Very general changes in the nervous system which are expected and normal part of the ageing process
With age .. nerve cells do not transmit messages as efficiently as they used to because of general wear and tear
Sight, hearing and mobility can be affected .. and occasional memory lapses are considered normal
Motor neuron disease
Rare condition caused by the breakdown of nerve cells in the brain
Research under way to understand the causes and develop a cure
MND usually begins between ages of 50 - 70 and affects around 2/1000,000 in the uk
Affects the muscles used to move (voluntary) .. but not the nerves dealing with sensation .. no numbness or pins and needles
Parts of brain dealing with intelligence and awareness also remain unaffected
Degeneration of the sense organs
Our sensory organs receive information from our environment and within central nervous systems .. the information is taken to motor neurones or effector glands and organs
This information allows our body to respond accordingly
As we age (after 45) our sight deteriorates and detailed vision and focusing becomes difficult
Driving, watching television, reading
Cataracts are changed in the eyes .. makes vision cloudy .. can occur in one or both eyes
Diabetes also contribute to development of cataracts
As we age hearing becomes more difficult .. particularly for high pitches sounds
Hearing can be affected by chronic infections .. build up of wax .. or from illness and injury
Degeneration of the nervous tissue
May lead to conditions like multiple sclerosis
This is damage to the protective sheath that insulates the nerves and allows electrical messages to be sent all body
If sheath is worn or damaged .. then nerve impulses are delayed or unable to travel at all
Muscle wasting
As we age our appetite reduces ...therefore nutrition can lead to muscle wasting
Poor nutrition can occur because of a number of disorders .. chrohns disease .. ulcerative colitis
Older people (if living alone) .. may not eat adequate diets if they do not feel inclined to cook for one
Rheumatoid arthritis
Inflamed joint looks swollen..red .. and appears warm to touch
Inflammatory disease mainly affecting joints and tendons
Musculo-skeletal changes
Painful condition of the joints
Different types of arthritis .. many inflammatory and some degenerative
All age groups develop arthritis (children included)
Arthritis three times more likely to occur in women
Disease usually starts in wrists and hands or feet and can spread to other joints and parts of the body
Inflammation is the body's way of healing .. in rheumatoid arthritis .. the immune system starts to attack the body instead of defending it
Degenerative joint disease .. gradual breakdown of cartilage in the joints
Can cause pain and impair movement .. especially in elders
Usually occurs in the hips, knees, back , hands and feet
Can be limited to one joint but can affect several joints throughout the body
20% of people over 60 have osteoarthritis
Obvious signs of ageing are lines and wrinkles that appear on the skin
Young people's skin is supple ... and is able to return to original shape when stretched
Common illnesses of ageing
Illnesses related to age include some types of dementia .. like Alzheimers disease .. as well as sensory disorders that effect sight and hearing
Skin changes
Tissue in the skin loses elasticity with age .. causing skin to wrinkle rather then bounce back into place
Skins properties destroyed more rapidly with excessive exposure to sun and sun beds .. and smoking
Similarly loss of elasticity in lung tissue means elderly more prone top repository problems and diseases (pneumonia)
Even eyesight is affected by loss of elasticity .. eye lens become less supple with age .. and is unable to focus as well
Effect on confidence and self esteem
Retirement can give freedom to travel .. to relax .. to be released from ties of regular work
Life events that we experience until old age can reduce or improve our confidence and self esteem
Can also take people away from social contact and financial security ..worrying time and can have impact on confidence and self esteem
Loss of partner may mean having to learn new skills .. cooking, gardening, managing finances
Challenges need to be embraced or it could be a time when confidence is low
Effect of ageism
May result in person believing this is true and conforming to society's expectations of them
Older people .. stereotype .. past their best and unable to contribute to society anymore
Because hearing, sight and mobility have been reduced .. they may feel a lack of function or not right
Ageism can lead to abuse in care establishments .. vulnerable older service users can be abused physically, mentally, and emotionally
Psychological responses
Ill health may also reduce self confidence because of isolation .. support from family and health and social services is paramount
Always learn from older service users .. easy to overlook their careers .. war contribution .. bringing up families etc
Ageism is a form of discrimination and brings the effects of discrimination previously studied
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