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Copy of George Washington's Presidency
Transcript of Copy of George Washington's Presidency
Steps Washington Took
* "The President of the United States"
Chose Well Known People to serve.
The first Cabinet created 5 executive departments:
Secretary of State - Thomas Jefferson
Secretary of Treasury - Alexander Hamilton
Secretary of War - Henry Knox
Attorney General - Edmund Randolph
Samuel Osgood- Postmaster General
Federal Court System
1 Chief Justice
Judiciary Act of 1789
John Jay was the first Chief Justice of the United States.
Set up a system of courts and Supreme court.
His goal was to create a strong national government with a strong national economy!
Washington wanted to reduce the national debt. He turned to his Secretary of Treasury for ideas.
Alexander Hamilton wanted to pay off the national debt and assume state debts.
"The Assumption Bill"
Hamilton wanted the government to buy up all the bonds issued before 1789. He then planned to issue new bonds to pay off the old debts. As the economy improved, they would be able to pay off the new bonds.
Many people, including bankers and investors, speculators, welcomed Hamilton's plan. Others attacked it.
Hamilton proposed a compromise. Southerners wanted the capital to be located in the South. Hamilton offered to support that if southerners agreed to his plan.
In July 1790, Congress voted to repay state debts and build a new capital. It would be built between Virginia and Maryland. Congress called the area the District of Columbia. (Columbia PA reading)
The next goal was to build a strong economy. In 1791 Congress created the Bank of the United States.
tax on whiskey
Hamilton asked Congress to pass the tariff to make the price of imported goods more expensive than American-made goods.
Congress approved a tax on all liquor made and sold in the United States.
Many back country farmers hated the tax and refused to pay it because it was so high.
In 1794, farmers rebelled. Thousands marched in protest through the streets of Pennsylvania. They sang revolutionary songs and tarred and feathered tax collectors.
Washington responded quickly by dispatching the militia to Pennsylvania. The rebels went back to their farms when they heard this. Hamilton wanted the rebels to be executed but Washington pardoned them.
The Whiskey Rebellion tested the will of the new government. Washington's quick response proved that the new government would act firmly in times of crisis. It also showed those who disagree with the government that violence would not be tolerated
With the wounds left by the tyranny of King George III and even after the writing of the U.S. Constitution, many Americans still feared government power.
In an effort to safeguard the liberty they had so fiercely fought for, they elected a man whom everyone trusted and respected as their first president. Many questions regarding this prestigious office were left to be answered by this well-known general who became the precedent President.
His first two terms proved to be a challenge and Washington declined to run again for a third term. The decisions Washington made in his two-term tenure have left a legacy that has impacted our world more than 200 years later.
Washington's Farewell Advice
Counseled strongly against forming political parties. He advised against forming parties based on geographical distinction. He thought that political parties would distract, agitate, and create animosity. Political parties would open the door for foreign influence and corruption.
Avoid accumulation of debt.
Have as little political connections as possible. Steer clear of permanent alliances.
He was sworn into office on April 30th, 1789.
He Ended his term in 1797
He established the District of Columbia.
He was elected for two terms from. While he was in office Vermont, Kentucky, and Tennessee entered the Union.
His nicknames were
"Father of Our Country".
His "Highness" or His "Excellency"
The American Cincinnatus: Like the famous Roman, he won a war, then became a private citizen instead of seeking power or riches as a reward
The American Fabius For his Fabian military strategy (delay tactics)
Fun Facts about George:
His father and elder brother taught George. He did not attend any college. His elder half brother home-schooled him.
His favorite dishes included cream of peanut soup and string beans with mushrooms. He loved ice cream. He had ice cream coolers installed in his house.
France was a key ally of America’s in the Revolutionary War and their Revolution, at the time, was viewed by most as an extension of the American Revolution. “Liberty, Equality & Fraternity” were viewed as American as apple pie.
Jefferson, in France at the time, helped write their Declaration of the Rights of Man, which, intuitively, contained ideas strikingly similar to those in America’s Declaration of Independence
The first two presidents were federalists - George Washington and John Adams.
John Adams Federalist from MA.
The opposition party adopted the name
Thomas Jefferson from VA.
The supporters of the Democratic-Republicans were drawn from many segments of American society and included
strongly favored Adams, while Jefferson overwhelmingly carried the
. The key to the election lay in the mid-Atlantic colonies where party
John Adams took office after a harsh campaign and narrow victory. His political opponent Jefferson served as second in command.
“The period for a new election of a citizen to administer the executive government of the United States being not far distant, and the time actually arrived when your thoughts must be employed in designating the person who is to be clothed with that important trust, it appears to me proper, especially as it may conduce to a more distinct expression of the public voice, that I should now apprise you of the resolution I have formed, to decline being considered among the number of those out of whom a choice is to be made.”
1. Is Washington’s warning important today?
2. Which of these warnings is most relevant for our time?
At first, we were sympathetic, but we were horrified when they killed the King and Queen. The American Revolution was a conservative one.
We were fighting to keep the rights we thought we had. The French Revolution was a radical Revolution, fighting to gain rights they never had.
Quickly, everyone with any experience or moderation was pushed aside. These Radicals were every ones nightmares
the French revolutionaries guillotined King Louis XVI
With all this chaos going on, the US moved closer to Britain and eventually concluded the Jay Treaty.
Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay to London to negotiate the Jay Treaty. Both sides gained most (but not all) that they wanted.
Most important, war was averted. For the British, America remained neutral and economically grew closer to Britain
The Federalists favored Britain (while remaining officially neutral), and by far most of America's foreign trade was with Britain; hence a new treaty was called for.
As a neutral nation, the United States argued it had the right to carry goods anywhere it wanted. The British nevertheless seized American ships carrying goods from the French West Indies. Madison and the Jeffersonians called for a trade war against Britain
Abigail Smith Adams
They tell the story of the woman who stayed at home to struggle with wartime shortages and inflation; to run the farm with a minimum of help; to teach four children when formal education was interrupted. Most of all, they tell of her loneliness without her "dearest Friend." The "one single expression," she said, "dwelt upon my mind and played about my Heart...."
She leaves her country a most remarkable record as patriot and First Lady, wife of one President and mother of another.
Throughout Washington's presidency, Vice President Adams regarded himself as the heir apparent. Indeed, that alone explains his willingness to endure eight years in the vice presidency, an office devoid of power.
Adams faced a difficult reelection campaign in 1800. The Federalist Party was deeply split over his foreign policy.
Many had opposed his decision to send envoys to Paris in 1799, some because they feared it would result in national humiliation for the United States and others because they hoped to maintain the Quasi-War crisis for partisan ends.
John Adams, wishing to avoid open war, sent a delegation to France. This delegation was to work out the problems and conclude a treaty.
The XYZ Affair occured in 1797 and involved three French ministers who sent a letter asking for a $250,000 bribe before meeting the American delegation in France.
No protesting the government? No immigrants allowed in? No freedom of the press. Lawmakers jailed?
Alien and Sedition Acts
were four bills that were passed by the Federalists in United States Congress and signed into law by President John Adams in 1798
These laws included new powers to deport foreigners as well as making it harder for new immigrants to vote.
Previously a new immigrant would have to reside in the United States for five years before becoming eligible to vote, but a new law raised this to 14 years.
Thomas Jefferson in the Election of 1800
Thomas Jefferson had served as Washington's secretary of state, and ran a close second to John Adams in the election of 1796. As a critic of the Adams presidency, Jefferson was an obvious candidate on the Democratic-Republican ticket that would oppose the Federalists.
From 1794 to 1797, Thomas Jefferson operated as the informal leader of what would become the nation's first opposition political party, the Democratic-Republicans
In his first inaugural address in March 1801, Jefferson pleaded for national unity, insisting that differences of opinion were not differences of principle. Then he said, with much hope,
"We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists."
In Thomas Jefferson's mind, the first order of business for him as President was the establishment of a
"wise and frugal Government, which shall restrain men from injuring one another"
Marbury vs Madison
On his last day in office, President John Adams named forty-two justices of the peace and sixteen new circuit court justices for the District of Columbia under the Organic Act. The Organic Act was an attempt by the Federalists to take control of the federal judiciary before Thomas Jefferson took office.
William Marbury, who had been appointed by President John Adams as Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia but whose commission was not subsequently delivered.
Marbury petitioned the Supreme Court to force the new Secretary of State James Madison to deliver the documents
On February 24, 1803, the Court rendered a unanimous (4–0) decision, that Marbury had the right to his commission but the court did not have the power to force Madison to deliver the commission. Chief Justice JOHN MARSHALL wrote the opinion of the court. Marshall presented the case as raising three distinct questions:
Did Marbury have a right to the commission?
Do the laws of the country give Marbury a legal remedy?
Is asking the Supreme Court for a writ of mandamus the correct legal remedy?
Judicial review is the doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review (and possible invalidation) by the judiciary
To rectify the flaw in the original presidential election mechanism, the Twelfth Amendment, ratified in 1804, was added to the United States Constitution, stipulating that electors make a discrete choice between their selections for president and vice-president.
Members of the Electoral College were authorized by the original Constitution to vote for two names for President. (The two-vote ballot was created in order to try to maximize the possibility that one candidate received a majority of votes nationwide; the drafters of the Constitution had not anticipated the rise of organized political parties, which made attaining a nationwide majority much easier.)
Lewis & Clark
The Lewis and Clark Expedition, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition (1804–1806), was the first transcontinental expedition to the Pacific coast that took place shortly after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803
Captain Meriwether Lewis and his close friend Second Lieutenant William Clark
was not the guide for the Expedition, she was important to them as an interpreter and in other ways
The WAR of 1812
The War of 1812 was a 32-month military conflict between the United States and the British Empire
Firstly, at sea, warships and privateers of both sides attacked each other's merchant ships, while the British blockaded the Atlantic coast of the U.S. and mounted large-scale raids in the later stages of the war.
Impressment: refers to the act of taking men into a navy by force and with or without notice.
In the United States, victories at the Battle of New Orleans in 1815 and in the Battle of Baltimore
(Defence of Fort McHenry)
of 1814 (which inspired the lyrics of the American national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner")
FRANCIS Scott Key
The war was conducted in three theatres:
1.At sea, principally the Atlantic Ocean and the east coast of North America
2.The Great Lakes and the Canadian frontier
Oliver Hazzard Perry (Erie "Don't give up the Ship"
3.The Southern States
The Treaty of Ghent
The treaty largely restored relations between the two nations to status quo, with no loss of territory either way.
Treaty of Ghent, having been signed on December 24, 1814.
The Battle of New Orleans took place on January 8, 1815
Major General Andrew Jackson
As a leading war hawk in 1812, he favored war with Britain and played a significant role in leading the nation to war in the War of 1812
On August 24, 1814, after defeating the Americans at the Battle of Bladensburg, a British force led by Major General Robert Ross occupied Washington, D.C. and set fire to many public buildings
Dolly Madison saves government documents and paintings
The Burning of Washington
The important thing about The Lewis & Clark Expedition was that it set the stage for settlement of the West.
The important thing about The Lewis & Clark Expedition was that it looked scientifically and critically at an area of land that had not yet been explored.
Animal species encountered included grizzly bear, buffalo, black tailed deer and bighorn sheep
The Battle of Fallen Timbers was an important victory for the United States Army against natives in the Northwest Territory
The major purpose of this army was to defend American settlers from Indian attack.
Battle of Fallen Timbers, (Aug. 20, 1794), decisive victory of the
U.S. general MAD Anthony Wayne
over the Northwest Indian Confederation, ending two decades of border warfare and securing white settlement of the former Indian territory mainly in Ohio..
The fruits of the Battle of Fallen Timbers were claimed at the Treaty of Fort Greenville
Opened the door to westward migration and settlement of those areas
-- American merchants resented British barriers of trade with France.
-- Americans angered by impressment.
-- Americans believe the British pushed Native Americans to fight with American settlers.
-- Some members of the House of Reps wanted to expand into Canada.
-- American patriotism was boosted.
-- Native Americans were weakened.
-- Loss of trade encouraged American manufacturing.
-- United States proved that it could defend itself.
Secretary of State John Kerry
Secretary of the Treasury Jacob Lew
Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel
Attorney General Eric Holder
Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell
Secretary of Agriculture Tom J. Vilsack
Secretary of Commerce Penny Pritzker
Secretary of Labor Thomas E. Perez
Secretary of Health and Human Services Kathleen Sebelius
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Shaun Donovan
Secretary of Transportation Anthony Foxx
Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz
Secretary of Education Arne Duncan
Secretary of Veterans Affairs Eric Shinseki
Secretary of Homeland Security Jeh Johnson
During the War of 1812, Tecumseh's confederacy allied with the British and helped in the capture of Fort Detroit.
Francis Scott Key
His famous poem, “The Star-Spangled Banner” was written following the British attack in Chesapeake Bay in the summer of 1814.
He helped plan the new capital city, which was given his name. But he never lived in that city. He used to commute by a boat from Mount Vernon to Washington D.C
Thomas & John
For the 1800 election, Burr threw his allegiance to Thomas Jefferson. Burr ran with Jefferson on the same ticket as the vice-presidential candidate.
Jefferson and Burr each received 73 electoral votes. John Adams received 65 votes, Charles C. Pinckney received 64 votes. John Jay, who had not been running, received one electoral vote.
The original wording of the Constitution, which didn't distinguish between electoral votes for president and vice president, led to the problematic outcome.
The election in the House of Representatives began on February 17, 1801, in the new Capitol building in Washington. The voting went on for several days, and after 36 ballots the tie was finally broken. Thomas Jefferson was declared the winner. Aaron Burr was declared vice president.
And it is believed that Alexander Hamilton's influence weighed heavily on the eventual outcome.
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As early as 1794, Thomas Jefferson had told James Madison he would someday be president. During Jefferson's two terms in the White House, Madison had served as his right-hand man and primary advisor. By late 1807, rumors spread through Washington City that Madison was Jefferson's choice to succeed him as president.
In November, as the voting results were slowly revealed, it became apparent that James Madison would be the next president. Reports showed that New England solidly supported Pinckney and other Federalist candidates, but all other regions strongly backed Madison and the Republicans. The final count in the electoral college gave Madison 122 votes, Pinckney 47, and Clinton 6. However, Clinton was re-elected vice president for another term with 113 votes.
The duality of Thomas
When Jefferson assumed the Presidency, the crisis in France had passed. He slashed Army and Navy expenditures, cut the budget, e
liminated the tax on whiskey
so unpopular in the West, yet reduced the national
debt by a third
Further, although the Constitution made no provision for the acquisition of new land, Jefferson suppressed his qualms over constitutionality when he had the opportunity to acquire the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon in 1803.
Napoleon was at war with GB.
He was militarily overextended and needing money to continue his war against Britain.
Knowing full well that he could not force Americans out of the land France possessed in North America,
Napoleon offered all of LOUISIANA to the U.S. for 15 million dollars
. The massive territory stretched from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and more than doubled the size of the United States.
With a purchase price of just $15 million (or about $233 million in 2011 dollars), the U.S. added some 13 states worth of territories at less than three cents per acre (or less than 42 cents per acre in today's dollars).
Sally Hemings (her given name was probably Sarah) was born in 1773; she was the daughter of Elizabeth (Betty) Hemings, and her father was allegedly John Wayles, Thomas Jefferson’s father-in-law.
Gabriel's Rebellion: Another View of Virginia in 1800 (Gabriel's vision in leading a SLAVE REVOLT)
Virginia executed 27 blacks, including Gabriel, by public hanging.
Napoleon's asking price worked out to be about four cents an acre.
Most of the Senate agreed and the LOUISIANA PURCHASE easily passed 26 to 6.
Although 15 million dollars was a relatively small sum for such a large amount of land, it was still an enormous price tag for the modest federal budget of the day.
Doubling the Nation's Size: The Louisiana Purchase
Thomas Jefferson - 12/22/1807: President Jefferson signs the Embargo Act,
President Jefferson signs the Embargo Act, putting a halt to all trading with any country in the entire world. The act serves as a retaliatory measure to the increasingly coercive trade policies of the British and the French. December 22, 1807
The Naturalization Act,
which extended the residency period from 5 to 14 years for those aliens seeking citizenship; this law was aimed at Irish and French immigrants who were often active in Republican politics
The Alien Act,
which allowed the expulsion of aliens deemed dangerous during peacetime
The Alien Enemies Act,
which allowed the expulsion or imprisonment of aliens deemed dangerous during wartime. This was never enforced, but it did prompt numerous Frenchmen to return home
The Sedition Act
which provided for fines or imprisonment for individuals who criticized the government, Congress, or president in speech or print
John Adams wanted to avoid a full scale war with France opposing his own Federalist Party that under the direction of Alexander Hamilton
Foreign Minister Talleyrand
wanted a bribe of 250,000 and a 10 million dollar loan to the French government before negotiations could begin.
The Democrat – Republican Party, suspicious of Adam’s dealings, demanded that he release all correspondence with France, and in doing so, he replaced the French agent names with X, Y and Z.
12th Amendment: each elector must pick a President AND a Vice President on his or her ballot.
In order to try and win back the Federalists and Stop a potential war with France:
Alien and Sedition Act
Rep. Jared Huffman
"Dear President Trump, if you want to meet someone who has an actual IQ problem (as opposed to just being black), meet your Education Secretary Betsy DeVos. Rich, white, and dumber than a bag of hammers."