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The Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon Years

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Noelle Toxqui

on 19 May 2014

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Transcript of The Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon Years

The Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon Years
John F. Kennedy
Lyndon B. Johnson
The Vietnam War
Richard Nixon
The Counterculture
The Women's Rights Movement
The Ford and Carter Years
Nixon and the Cold War
Nixon and the Watergate Scandal
JFK and the Cold War
JFK's New Frontier
Origins of the Vietnam War
U.S. Involvement Grows
The War's End and Impact
The War Divides America
1. Republican Richard
Nixon
(Ike's VP) and Democratic
JFK
ran in the
Election of 1960
. Americans thought Nixon did better in radio debates and that JFK did better in
TV debates
.
JFK won
in a close election.
JFK and Nixon Debate - 9/26/1960
JFK's Inauguration Speech
2. As president, JFK
increased funding
for the
U.S. Army and Navy
. He also helped "third world" countries with the
Peace Corps
. He helped Latin America with the
Alliance for Progress
.
3a. In April 1961, the
Bay of Pigs invasion
was a failed CIA-led invasion of Cuba. JFK took personal responsibility for its failure.
JFK Speaks About Bay of Pigs
3b. The
Cuban missile crisis
developed because the
USSR was building nuclear missile sites in Cuba
to protect Fidel Castro.
3b cont
.
Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles.
Results:

JFK
and
Khrushchev
maintained
open communication
, and the
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
ended above ground nuclear tests.
JFK Speaks About the Cuban Missile Crisis
4. After tense relations between JFK and Khrushchev regarding West Germany and West Berlin, Khrushchev ordered for the construction of the
Berlin Wall
, which separated East and West Berlin.
JFK's Berlin Wall Speech
1. JFK's
New Frontier sought to improve the economy, education, healthcare, civil rights, and the space program.
2. JFK cut taxes for the middle class, raised taxes for the wealthy, and used
deficit spending
to help a sluggish economy.
3. At first JFK approached cautiously with
civil rights
issues but later introduced a civil rights bill in 1963
4. The
space race
between the U.S. and USSR continued. Astronauts successfully
land on the moon in 1969
.
5.
JFK was assassinated
in Dallas, Texas in
November 1963 by Lee Harvey Oswald
. His VP LBJ was sworn in as president.
1. LBJ helped the
Civil Rights Act of 1964
pass, and he fought to end discrimination for African Americans and Mexican Americans.
LBJ on the Civil Rights Act
Johnson's Rise to Leadership
The Great Society
The Supreme Court and Reform
2.
LBJ
declared
"an unconditional war on poverty"
and devoted $1 billion to the
War on Poverty
. He also created the
Economic Opportunity Act
to help poor men and women train for jobs.
LBJ's War on Poverty
1. LBJ's
Great Society called for an end to poverty and racial injustice and opportunity for every child.
LBJ's Great Society
Reforms included:
Healthcare: Medicare (elderly) and Medicaid (poor & disabled)
Education funding
Environmental Acts
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
National Endowment for the Arts and Humanities
The Great Society gave funding for public radio and television, which allowed Sesame Street to first air in 1969.
1. Major decisions under
Chief Justice Earl Warren
included:
Mapp v. Ohio
(1961): can't use evidence gained illegally
Baker v. Carr

(1962): one man, one vote
Gideon v. Wainwright
(1963): right to a lawyer
Miranda v. Arizona
(1966): "Miranda rights" - criminals get to hear their rights before being questioned
Engel v Vitale
(1962): no school prayers
1. Truman and Eisenhower supported
France's colonial
control over
Vietnam
. Ike's
domino theory
held that
if Vietnam fell to communism, its neighbors would too
.
1 cont. Geneva Accords in 1954: Vietnam was independent and divided at the 17th parallel:
Ho Chi Minh's N. Vietnam was communist and Ngo Dinh Diem's anticommunist S. Vietnam was supported by U.S.
"You have a row of dominoes set up, you knock over the first one, and what will happen to the last one is the certainty that it will go over very quickly. So you could have a beginning of disintegration that would have the most profound influences."
- Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1954
2. Diem wasn't liked in S. Vietnam, and soon
pro-communist guerrilla fighters known as the Vietcong
worked to weaken Diem's government. After JFK sent troops to Vietnam, Diem was removed from power.
3.
Under LBJ in 1964, The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
resulted in the overthrow of the Diem regime in S. Vietnam, a vote of Congressional support for increased U.S. military activity in Vietnam, a formal
declaration of war on N. Vietnam
1. Between 1965-1973, the U.S. dropped more than 6 million tons of bombs on enemy positions and also used
Agent Orange and napalm
. As the war continued, it claimed many American lives and was very costly.
2. Americans fought in jungles, rice paddies, and mountains to help the S. Vietnamese survive. Fighting was often at night. By 1965, most soldiers had been drafted, and
Americans began to question the war effort.
3. LBJ wanted total victory in Vietnam. The
war was expensive
, and LBJ had to raise taxes and cut Great Society spending. Congress was divided between
conservative hawks
i
n favor the war and
liberal doves
against the war.
1. The
draft
became more
unpopular
.
Students for a Democratic Society
(SDS) organized campus demonstrations. Student protestors at
UC Berkeley
clashed with police and school administrators. A
"credibility gap"
between what
LBJ's administration
said and what
journalists reported
increased anti-war sentiments.
2. The
Vietcong's Tet Offensive
in 1968 was a
strategic blow to Americans
. Many saw that the war's end was nowhere in sight.
3. LBJ didn't seek reelection in 1968. RFK was assassinated while campaigning for the democratic presidential candidacy.
Republican Richard Nixon defeated Democratic Hubert Humphrey (LBJ's VP) in the presidential election
.
1.
Nixon
wanted
"peace with honor"
in Vietnam and started
Vietnamization
, which meant slowly withdrawing U.S. troops so the Army of the Republic of Vietnam could take over.
2. After Nixon decided to bring the war into
Cambodia
, student activists at
Kent State University
had an altercation with the National Guard, resulting in the deaths of four youths.
(2 cont.) The
My Lai massacre
made more people dislike the war.
(2 cont.)
Pentagon Papers
revealed that the U.S. got involved in Vietnam w/o properly informing the public.
3. In Jan. 1973, the
Paris Peace Accords
ended fighting and
removed U.S. troops
from Vietnam. However, fighting between N. Vietnam and S. Vietnam continued. By 1975, the
war ended in a S. Vietnamese defeat
.
4. Cambodia and Laos fell to communism. The
War Powers Act
limited the President's war-making powers.
(4 cont.)
Vietnam War veterans didn't receive the same praise that veterans from WWI and WWII did
. Some also had physical and psychological ailments after the war.
1. Nixon and Secretary of State
Henry Kissinger
embraced the idea of
realpolitik
and aimed to improve relations with the USSR and China despite any different ideologies.
2.
Nixon
decided to recognize the People's Republic of
China
, worked with Kissinger to open communications, and visited China in 1972, establishing diplomatic relations with the communist country.
3. Nixon signed the
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty with the USSR
, which froze the deployment of intercontinental ballistic missiles. Nixon's policy of
detente eased tensions between the USSR, the U.S., and China
. All of this brought the world
closer to an end of the Cold War
.
Nixon and Brezhnev (USSR)
Nixon and Zhou Enlai (China)
1. Nixon wanted to be a spokesperson for Middle Americans, the
silent majority
. His programs expanded the government's role. He also tried to fight the economic
stagflation
(recession with inflation).
Nixon's Silent Majority Speech - 1969
2. Nixon's
southern strategy
aimed to gain more Republican support in the South. He was reelected in 1972 thanks to his diplomacy with the USSR and China and his support from the South.
(4 cont). The
26th Amendment
(1971) lowered the
voting age
from 21 to
18
.
3a. The
Watergate scandal
broke national news when
Washington Post
reporters Bob
Woodward
and Carl
Bernstein
reported that the
burglary of the Democratic Party headquarters
in 1972 had
connections to the Nixon Administration and his reelection committee.
"I am not a crook."
3b.
VP Spiro Agnew resigned
in 1973, and
Gerald Ford was appointed as the new VP
. Investigators discovered that
Nixon was taping Oval Office conversations
. Though he claimed he had executive privilege, the Supreme Court ruled in 1974 that he had to turn them over.

3c. Crucial parts of
conversations were missing from the tapes
. The Judiciary Committee of the House of Representatives voted to
impeach Nixon
. Realizing that he would
likely be convicted in a Senate trial
,
Nixon resigned
on August 8,
1974
. Gerald
Ford
became the
President
.
Gerald Ford (Republican)
Jimmy Carter (Democrat)
President only from August 1974 - 1977

Known for pardoning Nixon

Dealt with stagflation in the economy, carried out some of Nixon's foreign policies, and had a low popularity

**Only president to not be elected as president or vice president**
President from 1977 - 1981

"Citizens' president" from Deep South

Gave amnesty to Vietnam War draft evaders

Known for SALT II agreements with USSR, Latin American relations, Camp David accords, and Iran Hostage crisis


B. The Counterculture Ends
A1. Music and Art
A2. The Sexual Revolution
A3. Different Routes to Spirituality
Beatlemania in the U.S. began when
The Beatles
appeared on the
Ed Sullivan show on 2/9/64
.
Woodstock
promised 3 days of peace and music in
1969
.
Art reflected a rebellious side. Andy
Warhol
's art remains iconic.

Counterculture members rejected traditional restrictions. Some
hippies
lived in
communes
or went to "love-ins."
Some people explored Buddhism or Eastern religions.
1. A
generation gap
separated the "silent generation" that grew up in the Depression and WWII and the "baby boomers." The counterculture declined by the late 60s.
A. Women's Movement Arises
B. Women Find Their Voices
C. Lasting Effects
1. Second wave of
feminism
in 1960s-70s.
Betty Friedan's
Feminine Mystique
(1963) showed the challenges women faced and identified "
the problem that has no name.
"
1. The
National Organization of Women
(NOW) fought for women's equality. The
failed Equal Rights Amendment
would've guaranteed gender equality.
2. Activist
Gloria Steinem
tried to raise awareness through the
mass media
.
2. Conservative political activist
Phyllis Schlafly denounced women's liberation
.
Roe v. Wade (1973) - Abortion rights

Civil Rights Act (1964) - Protects women from discrimination in the workplace

More women work

Some women still work for lower pay than men
Full transcript