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The Barriers of Immunization for Children in Developing Countries in Africa

Honors English II Final Project
by

Francia Fang

on 6 May 2013

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Transcript of The Barriers of Immunization for Children in Developing Countries in Africa

The Barriers of Immunization for Children in Developing Countries in Africa CHAPEL HILL, NC Every day, thousands of kids in the USA get shots to protect them from dangerous diseases. As citizens of a wealthy country, we have the privilege of easily accessible vaccines on a daily basis. Francia Fang Welcome to Africa In 2001, 99% of the 55 million world death count came from the developing countries of Africa and 10 million of these were children there are still 9 million cases of
VACCINE-PREVENTABLE DISEASES
each year TEN YEARS LATER... The Most Prevalent of These Are: -Poliomyelitis
-Measles
-Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus
-Tuberculosis
-Yellow Fever SO LET'S TAKE A CLOSER LOOK AT AFRICA.... Problem #1:
Failing Health Systems POVERTY=lack of skilled workers and necessary resources=failing health systems -health clinics are few and far apart
-sick patients must journey long distances to reach them EFFECT Many parts of Africa will not be able to meet the 8 Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) set by the UN Solution #1:
AMREF and UNICEF AMREF=African Medical and Research Foundation -founded in Kenya in 1957
-builds health clinics throughout Africa
-teaches the locals how to care for their sick and how to administer basic vaccinations UNICEF= United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund -funds vaccination campaigns throughout Africa
-campaigns go door to door in all kinds of terrain
-consists of health professionals and locals Problem #2:
Personal Opposition Religious Opposition: diseases are an "act of God"
objection to putting foreign things in body
belief in passive immunization
porcine-derived components ...and then there's this guy:
Former Governor Ibrahim Shekarau
Kano Polio Debacle of 2006 Personal Opposition: mainly caused by lack of knowledge
or incorrect information PARENTS don't know anything
ADOLESCENTS don't know much either HIV??? Solution #2:
Knowledge=Power! ?? WHAT ARE VACCINES?? money and time should be spent to research the attitudes of the local people before embarking on each vaccination campaign ACCEPTED,
not UNDERSTOOD Problem #3:
$$$$$$$$$$$$$ basically, Money Problems
Cont. transferring vaccines to hard-to-reach areas, people living in harsh terrain=vaccine "cold chain" cold chains are a series of portable fridges and boxes used in places with little to no power sources More Money
Problems Even More
Money Problems -Ministry of Health Official, Kenya new vaccines are always being discovered and added to recommended vaccine packages for children "Adding new vaccines to the national immunisation programme is like taking out multiple mortgages." 2002 vs. 2012: $1.50 --> $40 Main Recommended Vaccine Package for Children Vaccine Prices are continously increasing with the integration of newer technology $0.20 for 10 doses of DTP
vs.
$21.00 for a single dose of the pneumococcal vaccine Solution #3:
GAVI Support GAVI=The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (thank you, Bill and Melinda Gates, for that $750M) What GAVI Does: fund the introduction of new vaccines in areas that needed it the most How GAVI Helps: funds vaccines for countries until their per capita begins to increase and exceed $1,520
-->then they begin to "graduate" from GAVI's support Counties Eligible for GAVI Support The Problem with this "Solution" Not all countries will be able to support themselves after "graduating", even if their per capita increases which means vaccine prices are still TOO HIGH!!! due to the addition of many new vaccines Other Solultions:
UNICEF and the MDGs MDGs=Millenium Development Goals 8 developmental goals focused on eliminating different forms of poverty by 2015
agreed by all 193 member nations of the UN MDG #4:
Reduce Child Mortality 2012 Report: African countries have 24 of the 26 highest child mortality rates THIS MDG WILL NOT BE MET BY 2015 focus has shifted to intensifying efforts to reduce neonatal mortality rates (deaths that occur during the first 28 days of life) Finally...
the Benefits of Vaccines! many countries are increasing immunization coverage, but obvious reasons:
keeps the kids healthy
caps the spread of diseases
less obvious reasons:
boosts economy
contributes to workforce
public health's "best buy" Because Harvard Said So... According to
Seth Berkley... Harvard University of Public Health conducted 2 case studies: children from 2020 are projected to earn 2.39% higher wages when they start working
...compared to 0.79% higher wages for children from 2005
WHY? because newer, better vaccines have been/will be found children who had received 6 basic vaccinations in the first 2 years of life received higher test scores (math, language, and IQ) than those who did not KIDS SHOULD GET VACCINATED Dr. Seth Berkley=CEO of GAVI Alliance
(he knows what he's talking about) "Vaccines are the cornerstone of a vibrant economy, fuel growth, and serve as a magnet for foreign investment." When kids are vaccinated and healthy... then they can go to school, stay there longer, and learn more they will be more productive as adults & contribute more to the workforce they will earn more $$$, save more $$$, and live longer, healthier lives What Dr. Berkley thinks: bonus points for:
increasing medical savings
improving cognitive development
increase labor productivity and income THESE ARE ALL GREAT, BUT... There is MORE to be done Some Ideas from the latest MDG Report 2012: global vaccine community needs to continue to work together for lower costs and prices large international organizations like GAVI and UNICEF should use their advantage of representing large markets to drive prices even further down global community should encourage low-cost manufacturers to enter the vaccine market AND WHY SHOULD WE GO TO ALL THIS TROUBLE? and because every child in the world has the right to live a happy, healthy life because it is our responsibility as GLOBAL CITIZENS to take care of each other http://iesvalledelsol.webnode.es/news/poverty-in-africa/
http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2009/01/27/mercury-in-vaccines-was-replaced-with-something-even-more-toxic.aspx
http://guidetochildhooddiseases.com/information/can-my-child-receive-many-vaccinations-at-the-same-time/
http://www.shutterstock.com/pic-90263887/stock-photo-long-journey-in-summer-season-illustration-of-a-cartoon-landscape-road-in-the-sunrise.html
http://wiki.guildwars2.com/wiki/File:Flag_of_the_United_Nations.svg
http://htech4dev.blogspot.com/2012/05/meeting-amref-about-our-project-in.html
http://www.advancetech.org/supporting-unicef/info_16.html
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.nigeriavotes2011.com/clientmedia/images/content_images/uploads/images/Ibrahim-Shekarau_Kano(1).jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.nigeriavotes2011.com/election/page/ibrahim_shekarau&h=209&w=241&sz=1&tbnid=EdhyUK1T__4wJM:&tbnh=173&tbnw=199&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dibrahim%2Bshekarau%26tbm%3Disch%26tbo%3Du&zoom=1&q=ibrahim+shekarau&usg=__aOaHQi3yQy_2TyPT7rKS_GuROrI=&docid=FuQxlq7e8AN4rM&itg=1&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ujaDUdanIJDi9gS5y4HQBg&sqi=2&ved=0CHgQ_B0wCg
http://www.wekivaelementary.com/parents/
http://www.thelancet.com/series/hiv-prevention
http://willingcook.com/our-allergy-home-medicine-and-vaccines/
http://truedemocracyparty.net/2013/03/vaccines-a-case-study-vaccinations-part-1-medical-research-on-s-i-d-s-and-epidemics/
http://www.alibaba.com/product-gs/470085372/GSK_Cold_Chain_Bag_Vaccine_Carrier.html
http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/publications/article.cfm?id=6460&cat=briefing-documents
http://www.athenahealth.com/whitepapers/cost-of-vaccines/ PICTURE CITATIONS
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