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Gymnastics

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by

Alexandra Harig

on 21 June 2013

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Transcript of Gymnastics

2000
2010
2005
2002 March
(cc) image by jantik on Flickr
Men's Events
Pommel horse (side horse)
Horizontal bar (high bar)
Rings (still rings)
Floor exercise (free calisthenics)
Vault (long horse)
Flexible steel bar
Mounted 2.6 m above floor

Basic parts:
swinging and vaulting movements
Routine should not have stops
Dismount
: multiple somersaults
Made out of wood
Lowest part is 2.6
Basic parts:
swinging movements, held positions and slow movements
Floor area:

12m square of 3.2 cm thick mats

Main skills:

tumbling, balance, positions and movements that emphasize strength and flexibility
Wooden rails
Height and width are adjustable
Basic parts:
vaults, swings, balance positions and slow movements
Parallel bars
Leather or fabric covered cylinder Ø
Two pommels
Skills:
swinging movements without stops
Only hands should touch the horse
Past
:
same apparatus as the pommel horse without pommels
Past
: vaulted along its length
today
: vault over the table
Approach run of 25 m
Women's Events
Floor exercise
Vault (side horse vault)
Uneven bars (uneven parallel bars)
balance beam

Movements = continuous
-> include aerials, tumbling, turns, twisting
moves, flexibility,stylistic elements
BUT also balance positions
Musical accompaniment

Past:
horse --> performed across the
short
dimension
Today:
table
three basic parts:
preflight,support phase and after-flight
Vault influenced by the power generated in the run up, but the run up is no judged part

Adaptation of the men's parallel bars
-> One bar is higher than the other bar

Difference to the horizontal bar:
1) Diameter of the uneven bars is greater
2) made of wood or fiberglass
Olympic Games 2008: 16-year-old Chinese
He

Kexin
claimed the title with her perfomance on the uneven bars
Different elements of the balance beam routine

-> Traditionally, only girls compete on the
balance beam
Originally wooden
Research
-->The viewpoint of a movement influences gymnastics judges

-->
BUT
: gymnastics judges would be more independent of the viewing position and less influenced by processing time and attention.
Hypothesis
Example of a cross on rings from frontal-parallel plane (left side)
and from a typical judge’s position 60° from frontal view (right side).
First group:
experienced gymnastics judges
Second group: Laypeople (students)

Material:
Photographs with arms‘ deviation from an ideal horizontal line (small, medium or large error)

->
Optimum:
horizontal line (0°), 2s of duration
Method
Performance of gymnastics judges much better
Judges not influenced by
secondary task


BUT also influenced by the
viewing position
-->Increase of error rate the more the viewing position deviated from a frontal view
Results
2000 BCE
1830
early form of gymnastics appears
to have spread from Egypt and China
pioneer of the vaulting horse
and pommel horse
ancient Romans
1800
"Turnvater" Jahn created exercises for men on designed apparatus
Immigrants set up Turner and Sokol clubs
gymnastics was introduced into American schools
1881
1896
1920
The International Gymnastics Federation
gymnastics was first established in the Olympic Games in 1896
girls have been teached in gymnastics
1928
1972 & 1976
becomes more and more popular
Hermann Weingaertner
6 medals at
Olympic Games
1896
1910
1920
1930
Konrad Frey
6 medals(3 gold) at
Olympic Games 1936
1940
1950
1960
Alfred Schwarzmann
6 medals at
Olympic Games 1936 and 1952
1970
1980
1990
2000
2011
Karin Janz
Most successful german gymnast.
Invented the Janz-somersault
Erika Zuchold
5 medals at
Olympic Games
1968-1972
Eberhard Gienger
German Champion 36 times (1971-1981)
Invented the Gienger-Somersault
Maxi Gnauck
4 medals at OG
Worldchampion 6 times
Europeanchampion 5 times
Andreas Wecker
5 medals at
Olympic Games 1988-1996
Oksana Chusovitina
18 medals at OG, European-
and World- Championchips
Elisabeth Seitz
German gymnast of the year (2011)
Invented the Seitz
Philipp Boy
9 medals at
European- and World- Chamionchips
Fabian Hambuechen
19 medals at
European- and World- Chamionchips and Olympic Games
Sources
https://www.frankfurt-oder.de/DE/KulturTourismus/Sport/PublishingImages/Weing%C3%A4rtner_klein.jpg
http://herrlichkeit-erpel.de/system-cgi/blog/media/607078//20110428-TuSErpel1950_01.jpg
http://www.hall-of-fame-sport.de/media/athletes/34_picture_data.jpg
http://bilder.bild.de/fotos-skaliert/38-gienger-21562220_mbqf-18379818/2,h=493.bild.jpg
http://www.gymmedia.com/ag/events98/em/weck_ri1.jpg
http://ard.ndr.de/peking2008/geschichte/1972/janz2_v-ardcontent.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/00/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-L0422-0012,_Erika_Zuchold.jpg/200px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-L0422-0012,_Erika_Zuchold.jpg
http://www.young-germany.de/fileadmin/festplatte/bilder/Bilderstrecke/Flashback_2007/18_Sept_Fabian_Hambuechen.jpg
http://images.zeit.de/sport/2011-04/philipp-boy-080411/philipp-boy-080411-540x304.jpg
http://www.sport1.de/media/_redaktion/sportarten/schwimmen/turnen_1/Elisabeth-Seitz5x4jpg_Diashow.jpg
http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/photos/uncategorized/2008/11/04/chusovitina.jpg
http://www.gymn.ca/gymnasticgreats/images/wag/gnauck.jpg
http://gymnastics.about.com/od/majorcompetitions/a/MensJudging.htm
Horizontal bar (high bar)
Rings (still rings)
Floor exercise (free calisthenics)
Parallel bars
Parallel bars
Pommel horse (side horse)
Vault (long horse)
Floor exercise
Table
Uneven bars (uneven parallel bars)
balance beam
SQ2: Professional foreign language English
Lecturer:
Mrs. Pizzera
Instructor:
Judith Horch, Astrid Schmitz, Alexandra Harig
History
History
History
History
History
History
History
History
History
History
Competitive routine
: mount and dismount
Skills
: Tumbling, balance, flexibility, jumps
10cm
in width
Study
Study
Study
Study
(1) Image
(2) Literature
Modak, P. (2000), Coaching Gymnastics. Delhi: Khel Sahitya Kendra
McIntosh, J.S. (2011) Getting the Edge: GYMNASTICS. Broomall, Pennsylvania: Mason Crest Publishers
Plessner, H., Schallies, E.(2005). Judging the Cross on Rings: A Matter of Achieving Shape Constancy. Appl. Cognit. Psychol. 19: 1145–1156
Famous german gymnasts
Code of points = judging system

determines the difficulty values of skills and how each skill should be performed
Difficulty D score starts at 0.0 and increases with every performed skill
Execution E score begins at a 10.0 and decreases with each error
Cross on rings presented on a computer screen
5 response choices

One-task condition: only assessment of the arms’ deviation
Dual-task condition: assessment of deviation and duration
Method
You start in a standing position
Bring one foot forward into a step position
If you are doing so you bring your arms up over your head
A weight shift is following to the leg which is staying in front
The upper body goes downward forward and your hands touch the ground
Hip is flexed and you bring up your swinging leg
Standing leg follows the swinging leg, when the swinging leg is nearly up
Center of mass is going over the supporting point
Legs are closing
And your head is in extension of the trunk

Handstand
Cartwheel
You start in a lunge position
Your arms are straight and high in the air and your upper body is pushed forward
Place your hips square, facing the forward direction
Your back leg is straight while your front leg is bent
Put your hands side by side at 90° on a line on the ground
Push off of your front leg and elevate the back leg
During the rotation, straddle your legs in the air as far apart as possible
Your legs are straight, your toes and feet stay extended
For the landing, set your back leg on the ground, followed by the front foot
You finish in a lunge position

Study
Journal: Appl. Cognit. Psychol.(2005)
Gerling, I. (2009). Basisbuch Geraetturnen. Meyer & Meyer Verlag: Aachen
Gerling, I. (2002).Geraetturnen fuer Fortgeschrittene.Meyer und Meyer:Aachen

Readhead, Lloyd (1997): Men’s gymnastics coaching manual. Crowood, Marlboroug

American Sport Education Program with USA Gymnastics (2011): Coaching youth gymnastics. Human Kinetics, Champaign, Ill.
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