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Should I be worried?

An examination of hate crimes and secondary victimization among LGBTQ individuals
by

William Cockrell

on 30 April 2013

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Transcript of Should I be worried?

Should I be worried? An examination of hate crimes and secondary victimization among LGBTQ individuals What is a hate crime? Criminal behavior with a biased motive Arson Physical Assault Vandalism Murder Hate Crimes in 2011 Motive = Sexual Orientation 1,293 reports filed 3 reports for murder 2nd highest group represented in report filing highest group to report murder (FBI.gov Uniform Crime Reports) Background Research Physical altercations in school study: 38% of gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth 19% of heterosexual youth Bontempo & D’Augelli (2002) LGBTQ Exclusive Study on physical assault: Herek, Gillis, & Cogan (1999) 28% of adult male sample 19% of adult female sample Secondary Victimization Influenced behavior after the crime Lowered chance of reporting crimes Common Trends in LGBTQ hate crimes: Victims: gay men, under 21, open about sexuality, out in public Offenders: White men, under 21 Current Study Experimentally manipulated vignette describing a hate crime Administration of scales Hypotheses H1: Participants who read a vignette about a lesbian or gay character will perceive that the offender is less guilty of the crimes committed compared to heterosexual characters H2: Participants who score higher on the Attitudes towards Gays and Lesbians scale will rate the victim with lower scores of sympathy than participants who score lower on the Attitudes towards Gays and Lesbians scale H3: When reading the vignette, participants will view offenders of verbal assault as less guilty than offenders using physical assault Hypotheses H4: Sexual Orientation will moderate the influence of the character's sex in that participants will rate the gay male with the lowest amount of sympathy H5: LGBTQ individuals who score high on the internal homophobia scale will view the offender attacking a gay or lesbian as less guilty R1: On average, will the LGBTQ sample report findings on the victimization scale that are generalizable to previous research? R2: Will gay males and lesbians score higher on fear of crime scales than heterosexual participants? Participants Recruited through intro psychology & sociology classes Non college sample N = 428 Design 2 (Sex of Victim: Male or Female) X 2 (Sexual Orientation of Victim: Heterosexual or Homosexual) X 2 (Type of Attack: Verbal or Physical) design All participants will complete Herek's Attitudes Towards Lesbians and Gay Men Scale. LGBTQ participants will complete 4 additional surveys British Crime Survey Fear of Crime subscale Hate crimes based on Sexual Orientation survey Self-Esteem for LGBTQ individuals Internalized Homophobia Scale Dependent Variables Offender's guilt: 1(strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree) Is the victim worthy of sympathy? Is the victim responsible? Vignette Questions ATLG Scale 10 questions about gay men and 10 about lesbians α = .85 Sum score range from 3-12 Internalized Homophobia Scores range from 9-49 Lower scores = less internal homophobia α = .71 for women α = .83 for men Fear of Crime Subscale Qualitative Interview structure No available scoring Coding of participant responses Planned Analysis H1: ANOVA H2: MANOVA H3: ANOVA H4: ANOVA H5: MANOVA R1: Coding partners for Herek's scale R2: Coding partners for fear of crime scale Expected Results
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