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English Language Learners
Transcript of English Language Learners
, Estados Unidos Corte Suprema, 1923
Non verbal communication
English Language Learners
La proteccion de la Constitucion extiende a todos aquellos que hablan otros lenguajes como tambien a aquellos que nacen con el lenguaje de Ingles. Si todos tendrian una comprension de nuestro discurso ordinario, pero esto no se podra coaccionar con metodos que conflictan con la Constitucion-----------un deseable final no podra ser promocionado por medidas prohibidas.
Lau V. Nichols
, E.U. Corte Suprema, 1974
Castaneda v. Pickard, 1981
Plyler v. Doe
, E.U. Corte Suprema, 1982
Landmark y casos relacionados
El Consentimiento Decreto Florida
• Enfoca en los derechos civiles de los aprendedores del lenguaje de Ingles.
• Proporciona acceso igual a todos los programas de educación.
• No concede nuevos derechos, solo proporciona estructura para seguir las leyes federales y del estado de la educación de los ELLs.
• El decreto se enfoca en seis áreas:
Sección I: Identificación y evaluación
Sección II: Acceso igual para el programa apropiado Sección III: Acceso igual a categorías apropiadas y otros programas para los estudiantes de ELL.
Sección IV: Personal
Sección V: monitorizar cuestiones
Sección VI: resultado medidos
Ningun Niño Queda Atras
un plan para mejorar y emendar escuelas, cultura escolar, educación, y empoderar a los padres.
NNQA aplica a todos los estudiantes atendiendo escuelas públicas, incluyendo a las minorías, niños con deseabilidades, y estudiantes aprendidos el inglés.
NNQA y ELLs
La clasificación de los estudiantes aprendiendo el inglés; “ingles proficiente limitado”
Examinando en el lenguaje nato- 3 tipos de examen
Educational Programs for ELLs
the goal is to provide each student with the necessary English skills to succeed academically.
Types of ELL programs:
Immersion bilingual programs
Two-way developmental bilingual programs/dual language programs
Late-exit or maintenance bilingual programs
Early-exit or transitional bilingual programs
English as a second/new language (ESL/ENL) or English to speakers of other language instruction (ESOL)
Sub programs-ESL/ENL (ESOL)
Structured Immersion Programs
Sheltered English or Content-Based Programs
ELL's from different backgrounds come together
ESL/ENL or ESOL Support Programs
instruction in English as well as 2nd language
ESL/ENL or ESOL Taught as a Subject
generally middle or high school
recieve ESL instruction in regular class period
no instrctional support by trained specialist
Factors affecting ESL programs' desgin
The demographics in the district
Stable population of ELLs a single culture.
Large populations ELLs representing different backgrounds.
Resources available in the district
ELL programs are heavily influenced by the resources a district is able to provide.
Student academic characteristics
strong native academic preparation
no extensive academic preparation.
Who are English Language Learners
At first there is much excitement, everything is a new adventure.
reality then sets in, they feel lonely and "stupid" because one understands them and that makes them feel alone.
may feel embarrased of own heritage because it is so different and that makes them feel like they're different
educators may mistake a student with a language barrier for slow because they are often confused and shy.
there are 3 types of ELLs, long term. new arrival with limited schooling, new arrival with adequate schooling.
Humans use language to communicate, any child can learn a language by being exposed to it.
The human language is limited to sets of sounds and gestures which we use in combination to form words and sentences.
All Human language has...
Phonology- Rules to govern pronunciation and functions of sounds.
Pragmatics- system of how language is used in society.
syntax- how words are arranged in sentences.
semantics- system of word meanings.
- depends on the culture or language
- high contact cultures vs low contact cultures. in America we respect each others personal bubble, some other cultures not so much.
- sometimes too much eye contact or too little eye contact is offensive to other cultures.
- rules when tolerable or not depend on gender, social hierarchy, and relationships.
Second language acquisition
Silent period (preproduction)
Non linguistic factors that affect learning second language
First Language theories:
influenced by B.F Skinner theory-cultural learned behavior
emerged from the role language has socially on human interaction.
McLaughlin and Bialystok
1. Acquisition vs. Learning Hypothesis
2. The Natural Order Hypothesis
3. The Monitor Hypothesis
4. The Input Hypothesis
5. The Affective Filter Hypothesis
Quadrant 1: strategies developing survival vocabulary (easy) early stage
Quadrant 2: making maps-more proficient, gradually harder (medium)
Quadrant 3: telephone conversations-(harder)
Quadrant 4: Reading for information in content areas (difficult) no clues
proponents of cognitivist theory in second language
learners must be aware of knowledge
controlled and automatic processing mechanisms
learning a new skill-controlled
manages multiple information
Second language learners
own self-contained linguistic system
structure to linguistic stimuli
Native and target languages
help other students welcome the ELL students
challenges of a new language
new student is not unintelligent because he/she doesn't speak the language
welcome culture diversity in classroom
What kind of prior schooling?
Student literate at home?
What is the cultural orientation when it comes to space? Eye contact?
What is cultural orientation with work and leisure?
Cooperating or competitive culture?
Using appropriate speech
speak slower, enunciate carefully
use gestures when talking- facial expressions
Visual aids to communicate
adjust questioning techniques
Opportunities for interactions
adequate wait time to help formulate response
Kagan strategy-think, pair, share
learning centers for
cooperative learning projects
Developing literacy skills
previewing (book walk)
chain of events
Development of Writing Skills
Whether or not they already know how to read in their first language
the extent to which the home language alphabet is similar to the English alphabet
the number of opportunities they are given to practice reading and writing in English from the beginning.
support students in developing and communicating ideas first and worrying about correct grammar and spelling later
use personal, buddy journals
All content areas have specialized technical vocabulary that is not part of everyday spoken English
There is also language in each content area mastered by proficient students
Common English words may be used in a different ways
table (to graph)
Scaffolding may be needed in everyday language structures or frameworks for reporting learning
It may take 5-7 years or longer for students to acquire a level of academic English proficiency similar to their classmates.
With a welcoming environment, getting to know each student, planning language objectives for content areas, and customizing assessments; teachers can support ELL students.
Formal and informal
portfolios, journals, running records
holds teacher accountable
determines how much content is being learned
a way to maintain student documentation
to ensure educators receive a valid ELL picture
Administrators must know where money goes
CALLA (Cognitive Academic Language Approach)
Errors in communication are known as global errors
Do not correct errors every time that learners make a mistake-if they are in early stages of language acquisition focus on experimenting with vocabulary acquisition.
Grammar Translation Method
The Direct Method
Total Physical Response
Concept Definition Map
use visuals to build and connect to background knowledge
computer software, websites
Meyer v. Nebraska
, United States Supreme Court, 1923
The protection of the Constitution extends to all those who speak other languages as well as to those born with English on the tongue. Perhaps it would be highly advantageous if all had ready understanding of our ordianry speech, but this cannot be coerced with methods which conflict with the Constitution---a desirable end cannot be promoted by prohibited means.
Landmark and other relevant cases
Lau V. Nichols
, U.S. Supreme Court, 1974
Castaneda v. Pickard, 1981
Plyler v. Doe
, U.S. Supreme Court, 1982
The Florida Consent Decree
Focuses on the Civil Rights of English language learners
Provides equal access to all education programs
Does not grant new rights only provides structure to follow Federal and State Education Laws of ELLs
The decree focuses on six areas:
Section I: Identification and Evaluation
Section II : Equal access to the appropriate program
Section III : Equal access to appropriate categories and other programs for ELLs .
Section IV: Personnel
Section V : Monitoring Issues
Section VI : Outcome Measured
No Child Left Behind Act, 2001
a plan to improve and amend schools, school culture, education, and empower parents .
NCLB applies to all students attending public schools, including minorities, children with disabilities, and English language learners.
NCLB and ELLs
The classification of English learners ; " Limited English proficient"
Examining the naitive language- 3 types of examination
Skinner's S-R chain and operant conditioning.
Language is culturally determined.
Language is learned
Learners are passive
Chomsky's mentalist views:
child is actively constructing personal grammer
Language is biologically determined
Language is acquired
Learners are active in the learning process
Social interaction is key to language process
Input from social interactions provides a model for negotiation opportunities
Adults help young learners move along the zone of proximal development
Some innate structures are initially necessary
IA1bCastanedaFullText.htm (castañeda v Packard)
http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/457/202 (plyler v doe)
http://www.scps.k12.fl.us/portals/46/assets/pdf/esolmetaconsentsummary.pdf (Florida consent decree)
http://www.tesol.org/advance-the-field/standards (tesol standards)
water bird for duck
description instead of target language
Appeal for Assistance
Social Affective Strategies
3 key words,
2 interesting facts, and 1 question.